Foods and their importance
Living organisms, plants and animals, provides us with a daily diet, without which no person could live!
The food we eat is found hranitoare.Aceste substances may be organic or inorganic substances.
Inorganic substances are water and mineral salts and carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are substances organice.Indiferent geographic area and that particular foods, our employees can not lipsii substances in human nutrition.
WATER IN THE HUMAN BODY
There can be no îdoială, that of all substances entering the human body and animals, water is first in terms of quantity. Physiologist Claude Bernard who first tried to calculate since the last century the proportion of water in the body. How to proceed? He weighed Egyptian mummies – who were fully dehydrated. He then compared the weight of the mummies of living people weighing the same înlţime with similar physical characteristics as those mummies. through this process, he determined that the water is 90% in the human body. The figure is higher prices. This is mainly because of the prolonged dry mummies has led to the loss of solid substances in their bodies with water.
Subsequently there have been more accurate research, which showed not only how much water is in the human body, and even how much water containing tissue is composed. On average, a man who weighs 65 pounds can be sure that about 41 kilograms (63-70%) of its body is water. This proportion is true for other animals: dogs, cats, rabbits, generally warm-blooded animals have the same proportion of water in the body as the man and more of the same proportion of water in tissues like the man.
The role of water in the body
Water is an excellent solvent and is more substances for proper performance of the environment in several chemical reactions related to metabolism of substances and therefore life. The role of water in the human body is very high. Chemists know very well what happens when the two substances will react with each other. For example sodium carbonate and copper sulfate (purple stone) will result copper carbonate and sodium sulphate. If you mix the two particles that response simply will not happen. It takes substance can be dissolved in water prior to the reaction to take place.
In the human body have been numerous chemical reactions that give rise to heat energy and metabolism for life. Water has to accumulate property and adegaja heat through evaporation. These qualities of water have an important role in thermoregulatory physiology. At high temperatures of summer body receives much more heat than it needs. If this heat would not remove the body would suffer. Fortunately the body has many ways to remove heat. Change from liquid water in its gaseous state involves a loss of heat from the body where there is water. In the human body per gram of water evaporated from the skin surface (sweating) at room temperature facilitates the loss of 580 small calories.
Inserting and removing the water from the body
Water is introduced into the body in the form of drinks along with other foods. Indeed, apart from the water we drink, the amount of water in the body is formed by oxidation of various foods.
Many people think that if you eat a loaf, a roast, a cake or a vegetable body does not introduce even a drop of water. This is wrong. It was found that the complete oxidation of 100 grams of fat 107 grams of water are formed from 100 grams of starch to form 55 grams of water, 100 grams of albumin 41 grams of water are formed. From another point of view foods contain a significant amount of water along with other nutrients. Fruits and vegetables usually contain over 90% water and food that we call dried (bread, meat) contain between 60 and 85% water. Any food which I believe contains a cantitateapreciabilă water than the quantity of water which is formed by oxidation of food.
Water taken from the stomach and intestines, blood is transported throughout the body and is retained by the tissues. Reserve the water body is the muscles and skin in particular, because of their volume. In addition two other human copulatory organs and parts in their composition have a significant amount of water (liver, brain, blood plasma, cells, lungs).
Normally the human body needs daily two and a half liters of water, but sometimes this may need to rise to tens of liters of water. The question is what is needed to “change the water? It is clear that if water should remove it and put it back. But why remove it?
Water is eliminated from the body primarily through the kidneys (one liter and half a day). The fact that the loss varies between 0.6 – 2 liters per day. In some cases it can reach very high values. Thus, in diseases such as diabetes can be eliminated large amounts of urine (8-10 liters per day).
Kidneys have an important role: they extracted blood all useless or harmful substances the body, which he has gathered ţesututri and organs. To throw out these substances is necessarily need water, these substances are dissolved. The remaining water is removed through the lungs, in the form of vapor (~ 400 cm2), the intestines (100-200 cm2) and skin (500 cm2).
Much water is lost through the lungs. In dogs, who are deprived of glands sudoribare, evaporation occurs through the mouth, through the lungs and airways.
This water loss is increased by long-winded. In this way the dog manages to make the vast amount of summer heat.
Accelerated breathing in humans during labor or other physical effort, the amount of water is eliminated through the lungs increases. People who work in high temperature conditions can lose up to 6-10 liters of water.
Regler status and water metabolism
Many people have asked why leeste thirsty? Thirst is a signal of water shortage in different tissues in the body cells get to a point to not have enough water. This happens especially in summer. Announces Celelele brain about water shortages. Information is processed in the brain and form thirst, which obliges us to drink water.
While a creature can live without water? This variz than the ospecie to another. Some species, such as moths and snakes have a very high resistance to water shortages. So camels have a good rezisenţă dehydration. But most animals do not suffer from lack of long pore water. People lost in the desert without water, surviving longer than 3 days.
Water metabolism is influenced by many endocrine glands (thyroid, adrenals, sex glands, pancreas, liver), but the most important organ that regulates water metabolism is the pituitary gland (a gland below the brain). Posterior lobe of the pituitary hormone – pituitrina – causes a strong diurea (increasing the amount of urine).
Bark brain has an important role in Regler introduction, use and disposal orgnism water. As a coordinating body brain crust occurs in all these processes.
Thus life becomes inextricably linked to water …
-Calcium, sodium, phosphorus, potassium, iron, magnesium, are present in many foods. Sodium, for example, is found in kitchen salt (sodium chloride), calcium and phosphorus so necessary bone growth is found in milk, cheese, fish, meat and iron necessary for blood in the spleen, spinach, parsley, etc..
The loss of mineral salts, eg iron losses must be replaced with each menstrual period, a proper diet!
Is found in various forms in many foods, especially fruits, vegetables and grains.
a) Glucose is found in many fruits (especially grapes) and honey.
A) Sucrose (ordinary sugar) extracted from beet and cane sugar.
Excessive consumption of foods high in sugar lead to diabetes