Human Development Theory

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In the discussion of the soul (anima) is known that human beings have perfection than others. Man in life-changing physical and psychological changes (physiological and psychological). Many factors that determine human development, which resulted in various theories about human development. The theories are as follows:


1.Teori nativism
The pioneers of this theory is Athur Schopenhauer. This theory states that human development is influenced by nativus or innate human factors since birth. This theory asserts that humans have certain properties since birth that influence and determine the state of the individuals concerned. Environmental and educational factors are ignored and it is said has no effect on human development.

This theory has a view as if human nature can not be changed because it has been determined by the properties of their derivatives. When the descendants of both it will be good and when the descendants of evil it becomes evil. So human nature is permanent can not be changed. This theory views education as a pessimistic and discredit human groups who “happened” to have offspring that are not good.

2.Teori empiricism
In contrast to previous theories, this theory considers that the individual development is influenced and determined by the experiences gained during the development from birth to adulthood. This theory considers that the experience is to include education and association. The explanation of this theory is the human being is basically a white paper that there is no color and the writing will be what the human future depends on what will be written.
More optimistic view of this theory to education, even education adalh including menenukan important factor for human development. This theory dipolopori by John Locke.

3.Teori Convergence
This theory is a combination of both theories on the nature and experience of states that have a role in influencing and determining individual development. The assumption of this theory based on experiments of William Stern of the two twins. Twins have the same properties of descent, but after being separated in different environments these twins turned out to have different properties. From this it is concluded that the theory of heredity or innate nature is not the major factors that determine individual development but also contribute seconded by environmental factors.

Factor in the theory of human nature is referred to as endogenous factors, including factors such kejasmanian white, curly hair, black hair. In addition there is also a factor kejasmanian factors innate psychological factor called temperament. Temperament is different to the character or disposition. Character or character is the entire epidermis of human nature that namapak in everyday behavior as a result of the nature and environment and are not constant. If a character or characters are not constant then the temperament to be constant. In addition to temperament and physical properties, other endogenous factors that exist in human beings is the talent factor (aptitude). Aptitude is the potential that allows individuals to grow in one direction.

For environmental factors referred to in this theory is referred to as exogenous factors that come from factors outside the human form of experience, environment, education and so on are popularly referred to as milieu. The difference between the educational environment is located on the active processes running. When the environment is passive does not force depends on the individual whether to use the opportunities and benefits that exist or not. While education is an active and systematic and run full consciousness.

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