Free Float in Stock Trading

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The floating capital of a listed company corresponds to the portion of shares that might actually be traded on the exchange. It can be expressed in value or more frequently as a percentage of capitalization.

All things being equal, the higher the free float of a company, the better the liquidity of its shares and the lower the amplitude of its stock. This concept excludes the portion of the capital of a company which is owned by shareholders who do not intend to sell, due to sentimental reasons or a long term strategy . Its calculation excludes the shares controlled by:

    – The company itself or any of its subsidiaries;
    – Related companies in the context of shareholders, including the shares covered by the terms of preemption;
    – Those held by some investors that have expressed their intention of staying.

This calculation can be approximated by excluding blocks surpassing a certain size (eg x% of market capitalization).

In essence, the sum of available stock is computed by deducting the sum of restricted stock from that of issued shares for a given firm. The definition of restricted shares covers: directors holdings, strategic holdings, share holdings greater than a particular percentage, promoters holdings, government holdings and stocks listed on another exchange.

Prominent index providers such as STOXX, FTSE, MSCI, and S&P now employ free float on their respective exchange platforms. Free float is imperative for smaller commercial enterprises that have a number of strategic shareowners, that can include directors holding significant shareholding.

Free float index calculation is typically useful for performance measurement since it renders a benchmark linked to general purchases by money managers.

A stock option constitutes a class of options, and in essence, a call option entails the right rather than the obligation to purchase stock sometime in the future based on a fixed price. On the other hand, a put option constitutes the right not obligation to dispose stock at a fixed price.

Hence, the value of a stock option shifts in tandem with the underlying stock of which it is a derivative. The most common way of valuating stock options is the Black Scholes model. And the majority of stock options are transferable, excluding call options allotted to employees.

Capital stock is the starting point in establishing a corporation’s paid or transferred capital, the capital may be raised by paying cash or converting other assets. Possession of stock is attested by issuance of a stock certificate, which is a legal instrument that stipulates the number of shares possessed by a shareholder or the category of the stock.



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