Syndicated loan relates to the granting of a single loan by at least two lenders or banks to a single borrower. The syndicated loan is not a separate credit, but a particular form of provision of a banking business.
Reasons for the provision of a syndicated loan are risk diversification on high volume of credit for an individual bank in respect of existing bank accounts or customers.
Each facility provides funding for various purposes (equity, public subscriptions, porting of titles, credits long and short). As well as techniques and tools to optimize financial risks and costs, including the use of financial derivatives markets.
The group is generally coordinated by a leader (agent) who acts as financial engineer developing the necessary framework, dealing with primary group relations, recipient of funding and negotiates the financial terms and guarantees (collateral). Whenever the operation is limited to the provision of credit by several banks, it involves a credit union or syndicated credit and banking pool.
The participation of banks in the group is twofold: participation in the financing risk (capital injection) and involvement in risk (if the customer defaults), the agreement defines the actual share of the bank. Participation in risk is not necessarily equivalent to the proportionate share in financing. The bank may agree to take more risk than its own share of financing.
The additional remuneration of a lead bank is called preciput cash – due to the fact that the participating bank does not take cash (the leader charges them the cash, the latter claims its account).
External liabilities can be distributed within the consortium, as well as the internal relationship between the lead manager and the underwriters, in accordance with the regulations stipulated in the management contract. The centralized consortium’s credit processing (credit disbursement, billing and collection of interest and principal payments) are the responsibility of the consortium.
And are thus handled proportionately in the internal relationship. The sole owner of the credit exposure in both cases is the lead manager, so that the borrower should account for only a single credit against this liability.
Syndicated loans are granted if the loan amount for a single bank is too large. Due to different distribution, the risk is less for non-affiliated banks. The syndicated loan is thus an essential instrument of risk diversification.
The borrower is saved by the inclusion of a variety of syndicated loans from various banking institutions with possibly different credit terms, and only communicates with the lead manager. If the syndicated loan is repaid, so will the purpose of the consortium, for which it was formed.