An asset-backed security is a financial instrument that is financed by cash flow generated from a portfolio of assets, provided as collateral. The assets are grouped on the account of varying small investment profitability, while also reducing risk by diversifying the underlying assets.
Generally, securitized assets are often illiquid in nature. Almost all types of claims can constitute the basis for asset-backed securities, as long as they meet certain conditions. These include the transferability of the legal, the generation of regular and clearly allocated cash flow as well as historical performance data.
Preferably introduced into the pool with an average credit risk of financial assets and a term of more than a year upgraded through diversification. Primarily, these are claims from loans, high yield bonds, mortgages, credit card transactions, licensing, other property, leases and trade payables.
The financial assets in the portfolio of asset-backed securities, range from mortgages and credit card debt. However, the term asset-backed security is often used in a narrower sense.
As the market for mortgage securities as collateral is greater, these effects are often seen as a separate group. In such a case, the concept of asset-backed securities provides that bonds are secured by financial assets other than mortgages.
An important advantage of asset-backed securities is that it has a pool of financial assets to combine in their current form and can be easily traded. By mixing a large portfolio of the illiquid assets, they can be converted into instruments which can be freely offered in the capital markets.
The capital cost of the investment financed through asset-backed securities are lower compared to traditional debt financing. This is due to the saleindependence attained in the credit quality of the separated in respect of the underlying pool. With the sale of receivables, the risk of default is transferred to the SPV.
The regulatory capital relief that comes with this risk transfer is the main reason for using asset-backed securities. For the loans sold by the bank hold no more liable capital depending on the guarantor.
Cons of asset-backed securities transactions result primarily from the complex construction and related costs. For a cost function must be sufficient enough to cover the capital market interest rates to investors and the costs of the transaction.
In order to bring all parties to the desired positive position is a condition that involves a transfer of the receivables in the assets of the SPV. Thus a separation of the credit risk of the underlying claims in respect of the selling company (originator) is guaranteed. Consequently, this technique will ensure that the SPV buying challenge in the consolidation of the originator is located. Which is the role of the activation requirements for the SPV.