In a well balanced diet the body must consume enough of each type of food to get the calories, vitamins and minerals we require for the proper functioning of our body as a whole. The food we eat can be split into Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals, Roughage, and Water.
Carbohydrates are the starches and sugars that we eat. They are made up of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen and provide heat and energy to the body after digestion. The foods that contain carbohydrates are bread, pasta, potatoes, fresh fruits and even vegetables like broccoli.
Proteins are required for building and repairing muscles and tissues. They are made up of nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen and are called nitrogenous foods. Proteins are present in chicken, turkey, meat, eggs, fish, milk, cheese, soya products, kidney beans, etc.
Fats have been branded as the worst thing you can eat, which is not altogether true. In fact a lot of essential functions in the body do require the presence of some amount of fat. Foods that contain fat in large quantities include butter, mayonnaise, cream, yolk of egg, fish oil, meats that have not been trimmed of fat, nuts, and oil.
Vitamins are essential in small quantities to maintain normal growth and health. In fact the deficiency of each one can cause a serious disease. Vitamin B and C are water soluble while Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat soluble.
The total count of minerals required by the body is twenty one. The macro minerals are needed in higher quantities than the micro minerals. The micro minerals are Iodine, Fluorine, Zinc, Copper, and Cobalt. The macro minerals are Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium and Iron.
Roughage is the indigestible fibrous part of food. It gives bulk to food and helps prevent constipation. Plant fiber is usually indigestible to humans. So it makes the best roughage.
Water is the elixir of life. All living things are made up of a major percentage of water. In the case of humans, it is estimated that the body is made up of 25% water. This fluid in the body helps in many vital functions keeping the body alive and healthy. It helps maintain the osmotic pressure at cell level and lack of water will result in dehydration.