Tax deductions which essentially reduce the tax base, are determined by law and calculated according to the relevant terms. A number of schemes scale down taxable income or provide an array of incomes qualifying for zero tax.
On the other hand, other schemes enable deductions from the tax base as regards items the government is keen on promoting. While some make distinctions between commercial and non-commercial deductions.
It is also common for withholding tax or withholding of tax from income to be considered a tax deduction. Furthermore, there are direct reductions awarded on income tax for certain items (otherwise known as tax credits).
Almost all countries that tax business income permit tax deductions for costs incurred in the course of trading activities or other business operations. The actual allowances vary, and the sum of specific deductions can be minimal depending on character, amount, or aggregate deductions.
In some countries standard tax deduction is valid until the month in which income is computed on an accrual basis from the beginning of a tax period.
The property tax deduction covers new construction or acquisition of residential houses and apartments. Shares in a residential house or apartment may be received by the taxpayer who made the expenditure on new construction or purchase of housing. As well as on the amount directed towards the payment of interest on mortgage loans received by the taxpayer.
Such deductions are typically limited to a predetermined sum of money without taking into account amounts relating to payment of interest on mortgage loans received by the taxpayer. And indeed spent on new construction or acquisition of residential houses or apartments, but excluding amounts concerning payment of interest on trust loans received from credit institutions and other organizations.
This deduction is available to the taxpayer on the basis of an application when filing tax returns and documents confirming the right to the deduction. If an income received in given financial year indicates eligibility, a deduction can be granted to the taxpayer before the end of the tax period. But this is subject to confirmation of the right of the taxpayer to a property tax deduction, by the tax authority.
If several sources of income from which tax is withheld and the amount of property deduction are not fully utilized. This means the taxpayer has the right at the end of the tax period to apply to the tax authority to recalculate the balance of the tax deduction. However, re-provision of taxpayer property tax deduction for the purchase or construction of housing is not allowed.
Social tax deductions can take effect on the basis of a number of items which include education, (e.g, paying for children’s education), deduction for medical treatment, etc.