Jerusalem’s history is special as well as fascinating for many reasons. The first reason being, Jerusalemis revered by all three monotheistic religions – Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Several wars have been fought over the period of many centuries and millions of people have been killed to claim rights over the city. Secondly, Jerusalemis one of the oldest cities in the world and its history spans a period of over three thousand years. Lastly, Jerusalem’s history though different as believed by Judeo-Christian and Islamic accounts, brings forth the many underlying differences that separate the beliefs of Islam, Christianity and Judaism.
Under the rule of ala-ad-Din and the Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt, the Mamluks became powerful until they claimed the rule in 1250, ruling as the Mamluk Sultanate. By the time of the fall of the Ayyubids, most Mamluks were Kipchak Turks. The term “Mamluk” literally means “owned” in Arabic. Mamluks were soldiers of slave origin who had converted to Islam and lived during the period 9th to the 19th century CE. Later, Mamluks became a powerful military and political force in various Muslim societies, especially in the areas of Egypt, the Levant, Iraq, and India. In some cases, they became the ruling class, while in others they held regional power as local governors. Some Mamluk factions seized the ruling power themselves in Egypt and Syria in a period known as the Mamluk Sultanate that lasted from 1250 CE to 1517 CE. Most notably, during the Mamluk rule, they defeated the Mongols and fought the Crusaders.
Starting in 1486 CE, hostilities broke out between the Mamluks and the Ottoman Turks in a battle for control over western Asia. The Mamluk armies were eventually defeated by the forces of the Ottoman Sultan, Selim I, a