A stock is a fraction of the share capital, the sum of the rights and obligations of those who have paid their deposits on the stock. Comparable to the commercial portion of a private limited company or a security, which is the percentage of a company securitized.
A company can split its share capital into shares. The stock of a commercial enterprise is fractioned into shares, the sum of which should be declared at the time initiating the business venture. A share bears some stated par value, which is the minimal sum of money that a commercial enterprise can release.
In other areas however, shares might not have any related par value altogether, this stock is frequently referred to as non-par stock. Shares constitute a portion of ownership in a business concern, and a commercial enterprise can hold various classes of shares, that come with typical ownership decrees and privileges.
The book value of a share is determined in the following manner, that is, par value per share = (Equity / capital stock). The proportion of one share in the company can be securitized in the form of par value shares. The nominal value of shares equal to the share of capital stock of a company.
Stock generally come in the shape either common stock or preferred stock, and common stock normally holds voting rights actionable in corporate decisions. The difference between preferred stock and common stock emanates from the fact that preferred stock does not bear voting rights but is lawfully entitled to obtain dividend payments prior to any dividends being released to other shareholders.
While convertible preferred stock relates to preferred stock that incoporate an alternative to switch the preferred shares into a fixed amount of common shares (convertible preferred shares).
Par value shares do not have a fixed nominal value, instead they correspond to their share of capital stock. The dividend is paid per share to the owners of the shares. The amount of the dividend is proposed by the Board and decided at the annual general meeting of the company.
As an investment product, stocks are interesting not only because of the dividend, but also offer potential returns when the stock price rises. A stock derivative constitutes financial instrument which delivers value subordinate to the cost of the underlying stock. While stock futures relate to contracts with which the buyer is said to be long, (buys on the maturity date of the contract), and the seller is short.