At the same time, the injury may be associated with other injuries such as skull fractures as well. In any event, the traumatic brain injury remains to be a major factor in causing death and disability among the young and the middle aged and is an issue that needs to be addressed at health forums worldwide.
Determinants of its outcome:
Following a TBI, a person may feel many symptoms that may be classified as physical symptoms and cognitive symptoms. The occurrence of these symptoms would be related to many aspects of the injury and among them the intensity of the trauma, location of the trauma, direction and the acceleration of the traumatic force as well as person factors could be cited as being major determinants of the outcome.
When looking at physical problems associated with a TBI, occurrence of headache, nausea and vomiting would be a major concern as this indicates towards a gradual increase in the intra-cranial pressure (ICP) probably due to accumulation of blood and the edema that constrains the tight space within the skull. Characteristically these symptoms would not go away spontaneously and it will persist throughout till the ICP is brought back to normalcy.
At the same time, these patients can also develop convulsion or fits and is likely to feel excessive sleepiness as well. When looking at the pupils of the eye, they will have altered response to directed light and would most often be dilated. Looking deep, the optic disk behind the eye ball could be dilated which also indicated the development of high intracranial pressure.
Changes in the speech is another physical sign that can be seen in most instances and among the variations, slurred speech, aphasia or difficulty in articulating words as well as dysarthria which results from muscle weakness in the region can be considered important.
When the injury progress further, there may be limb weaknesses as well as numbness or sensory impairment in regions supplied by the affected parts of the brain. Furthermore, the condition would become serious when the intracranial pressure rise further to cause paralysis of one side of the body, slowing of the heart rate, give rise to high blood pressure and a weak respiratory effort that may lead to fatal outcomes if not relieved early.