Thursday, December 14

Racial Disparities in The Justice System Annotated Bibliography Paper Uop

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                  Racial Disparities in the Justice System Annotated Bibliography

Eitle, D, Stolzenberg, L, & D’Alessio, S.J.  (2005, March).  Police Organizational

Factors, the Racial Composition of the Police, and the Probability of Arrest.   Justice Quarterly, 22 (1), 30-58.

                This revision studies the consequence of phases distressing detention rates, comprising cultural conformation of the police force, edification necessities, organizational responsibilities, and nuance of concentration.  Exhausting data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System, the 2000 Law Enforcement and Management and Administration Statistics, and the 2000 decennial census, professors from Florida International University engaged multilevel modeling to fill breaches in investigation on race and arrest rates.  They established that the racial configuration of the police force had no influence on racial conformation of arrests.  Variables that did have an outcome were the extent of the subdivision, amount of transcribed guidelines regarding arrests, and criminality rate in the district, all representing that as properties for fighting crime and centralization increase, so too do arrest likelihoods, or the alteration between being arrested if your black versus being white.  Also, of note was the discovery that ghettoized and Southern cities have poorer arrest possibilities than non-segregated north or western cities, meaning that segregation points to higher arrest rates amongst blacks than whites.  In broad-spectrum, police quarters with a greater proportion of black officers had higher arrest rates among both blacks and whites.

Source: http://proquest.waldenu.edu/pqdweb?index=0&did=918242191&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1165642245&clientId=70192#fulltext

Fifteen years of guidelines sentencing: an assessment of how well the federal criminal justice system is achieving the goals of sentencing reform (2005, April). Federal Sentencing Reporter, 17(4), 269.

This policymaking summary distributed by the United States Sentencing Commission scrutinizes the antiquity of the sentencing reform act of 1984 and as yet unanswered issues of sentencing.  The commission established that as an outcome of the act, sentencing is more apparent and constant, permitting more precise expectations about the result of policy on jail populaces.  The harshness of sentencing has been augmented for most offenses, and inter-judge inequality has been reduced.  However, the commission discovered that racial disproportions still exist despite efforts of the act, due to pre-sentencing phases and the growth of severity of punishment for certain crimes, like drug crimes, that are unreasonably committed by subgroups. The commission finds three areas for enhancement in the employment of the sentencing reform act: superior use of investigation and knowledge developed by the commission, teamwork among policy makers and court decision makers, and political answerability through governmental directives and review.  Following these recommendations is likely to reduce incongruences.

Source: http://proquest.waldenu.edu/pqdweb?index=1&did=885151721&SrchMode=1&sid=3&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1165642607&clientId=70192

Blankenship, K.M., Smoyer, A.B., Bray, S.J. and Mattocks, K.  (2005, November) Black-

White Disparities in HIV/AIDS: The Role of Drug Policy and the Corrections System. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 16 (4), 140-57.

Focusing on the structural sources of the disproportion of HIV/AIDS risk among African Americans, this study reviews research literature to find links between drug sentencing and HIV/AIDS incidence.  Because risk behavior while in prison is similar for blacks and whites, the study finds that any differences in transmission while incarcerated must be due to structural factors.  Due to mandatory minimums and increased sentencing for drug crimes in the 1980s, the number of those incarcerated for drug crimes increased from 1 in 16 inmates in 1980 to 1 in 4 in 1995.  In 1980, 1 in 30 black men were incarcerated while in 1990, 1 in 15 were incarcerated.  This increased exposure to prison coincided with skyrocketing HIV and AIDS incidence in black communities.  The authors concluded that interventions aimed at reducing exposure to prison, reducing harm within prison, and easing re-entry to life after prison are all likely to decrease the disproportion of African Americans infected with HIV/AIDS.

Source:  http://proquest.waldenu.edu/pqdweb?index=0&did=953605821&SrchMode=1&sid=8&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1165642797&clientId=70192#fulltext

Muhammad, Charlene. “America’s New Slavery: Black Men in Prison.” Final Call. Web. 30 Oct. 2010.

This article focuses on the percentage of African-American men and woman who are imprisoned and compares that to white men and women. According to “One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008,” published by the Pew Center on the States, one in nine Black men between the ages of 20-34 are enslaved equated to one in 30 other men of the identical age. Comparable to the overall adult ratio, one in 100 Black females in their mid-to-late 30s is imprisoned. “Everybody is serving off of our down-trodden ailment to nourish their entrepreneurship, greediness and desire for money. They are purchasing prison stock on the market and this is why they want to silence the invigorating voice of Minister Louis Farrakhan, since he is revamping those who stop and would upkeep the prison system as slaves,” said Student Minister Abdullah Muhammad of the Nation of Islam Prison Ministry.

Data from the National Association of State Budget Officers indicates:

• Vermont, Michigan, Oregon, Connecticut and Delaware consumed as much or more on corrections than on higher teaching;

• For every dollar spent on higher education, Alaska spent 77 cents on corrections;

• For every dollar spent on higher education, Georgia spent 50 cents on corrections;

• On the average, all 50 states spent 60 cents on corrections for every dollar spent on higher education; and

• For every dollar spent on higher education, Minnesota spent 17 cents on corrections.

Liana Coffee concludes that “At present development, we might very well see the figure of so-called free Blacks rival to the same quantity of those that are imprisoned. The answer is unpretentious: Unity.”

Source: http://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/National_News_2/America_s_New_Slavery_Black_Men_in_Prison_4475.shtml

Treadwell, Dr. Henrie M. “The Impact of High Black Male Incarceration Rates.” Final Call. Web. 30 Oct. 2010.

This article evaluates the effects of high African-American incarceration rates. The author describes the effects on the prisoner once he/she returns from jail – how she/he will be more vulnerable because of the major changes to the community and families. The author also evaluates the damage done to the children of the prisoner – the effects of the absence of the father on the family. “Possibly the principal sufferers of this policy were progenies—the sons and daughters of the inmates. By 1999, there were 721,500 parentages in federal and state prisons, and they were parents to 1.5 million children. The communal impression of so voluminous children with parents in prison is overwhelming, particularly in low-income societies. It nurtures a background where children don’t have role models and may fall into the same bad conducts of their parents. We also must contemplate the psychosomatic impact. While the father is confined, children and families not only lose the monetary and emotional support of the absent parent, but must deal with the disgrace of having a family associate in jail.” The author concludes that “We have seen the influence of what more prison walls have brought us; now it’s time to invest in the health and well-being of people. “ Source: http://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/article_4059.shtml

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