Monday, December 18

Jessup Memomrials

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Statement of Facts

This dispute arises from the Zeitan civil war between Ardenian and Zeitan militias, resulting in the Creation  of Rigalia  (Respondent)  -a  developing  State-  and  Zeitan  (not party  to  the  case).  Ardenia (Applicant)  -a  neighboring  State-  remained  neutral  during  the war and  offered  its  services  for  a peace conference. In April  1997, WRI  reported that Rigalian militiamen were  systematically raping Zeitan women  This was confirmed by a UNCHR mission, which found that Zeitan,  the Rigalian militia  leader, and his deputies took no  steps to  stop the rapes. In  1998, Zeitan  admitted his knowledge of the rapes and that he was powerless  to stop them. In  1999,  the militias agreed to a cease-fire. On 14 September, Zeitan  partitioned,  and on November 1st, Rigalia held its  first elections. Zeitan, President  elect  granted a comprehensive  amnesty to everyone in Rigalia accused of wartime crimes as part of his “National Healing Campaign”.The WRI Executive Director campaigned for the adoption by Ardenian parents  of children  left orphaned by  the war. ARAS  arranged  for parents  to  attend  interviews  in Rigalia  to qualify  for and  receive  foreign adoption certificates, and nearly 2000 children were  adopted.


In  January  2001,  the  1TP  revealed  that Rigalian  border  officials  were  exacting  bribes  from  adoptive parents.  The  officials  kept  these  amounts.  On  February  2,  Ardenian  President  Contrary  urged Zeitan to address the corruption. Zeitan replied that  it was a small  issue, and  that Ardenia was complicit  in  the  children’s  illegal  removal. Upon  further pressure,  Rigalia  reassigned  10  border officials accused of corruption -10%  of those implicated. None were prosecuted or disciplined. On March 21,  2001,  Contrary expressed concern about the wartime  rapes of Zeitann women, and urged Zeitan  and  Rigalia  to  punish  the  perpetrators  and  pay  reparations  to  victims.  On  March  31,  2001, Zeitan  reminded Ardenia of the  amnesty,  denying  that his government  owed  any reparations.  On April 20,2001, given its neighbors’  failure to pursue the matter, Contrary stated that Ardenia would take up the cause and seek reparations  for the women On December 1999, the UNCHR estimated that thousands of raped women lived without families or means of support. Reports  indicate  that in September of that year agents of the Zeitan  Co. -an Ardenian private  company  founded by Fred Zeitan  (Ardenian, and company CEO)-  traveled to Zeitan to recruit hundreds  of these women to  find new lives in Ardenia. They were promised jobs and education, and were  assisted in  filing work  and  travel documentation.  Once  in Ardenia, nearly  all began working  in the Company’s brothels. By Decenber 2000, over 2,500 Zeitan women had been relocated to Ardenia, which granted  them resident  status. According  to  the 1TP,  Zeitan  organized  their recruitment  and transportation  to Ardenia. On 1 May  2001,  ILSA  published  a  report  focusing  on  Zeitan women working  in  Zeitan brothels,  alleging  that many were  abused  and deprived  of their liberty,  and  that Ardenian  agencies had dismissed  women’s complaints.  The Report provided a detailed account  of a Zeitan rape victim  living in  the  brothels,  who  was  subject  to  harsh  living  and  working  conditions.  On  May  17,  2001,  Contrary expressed  shock  and  horror  at  this,  and  announced  the  creation  of a blue-ribbon  panel  to  examine  the problem.  She  denied  Ardenia’s  responsibility  for  the  brothels’  operation,  and  her  government’s independent knowledge of the  fa cs in the report. She expressed her concern for  the Zeitan women, yet affirmed  that  the  Report  was  insufficient  basis  for  criminal  charges.  She  recognized  that  although complaints  had been filed, the government was not involved in the abuse of Case Rigalian women On  19 May, 2001,  Zeitan  ordered his Justice Minister to perform  an investigation  on human  rights violations  in Ardenia. Later that day, the Justice Ministry announced that it would prosecute Zeitan for trafficking  in women for sexual slavery based on the universal jurisdiction principle applicable  to crimes against  humanity.  It  is  the  first  time  that Rigalia  invokes  universal jurisdiction.  Rigalia  announced  that it would try him  in absent if jurisdiction was not obtained, and requested Zeitan  through diplomatic channels. There  is no extradition treaty between Ardenia and Rigalia. The  following  day  Contrary  accused  Zeitan  of  trying  to  distract  attention  from  his  country’s problems,  denying  the  commission  of a crime  against  humanity  and Rigalia’s  right  to exercise  universal jurisdiction. She requested that Rigalia respect Ardenia’s  sovereignty. On 21  May  2001,  Zeitan  released  copies of the  ILSA  Report’s  unpublished  background  research, which  indicated  that theZeitan  Co. operated  dozens  of brothels. Zeitan  reiterated Rigalia’s intention to try Zeitan under the universality principle. Following  unsuccessful  mediation by the UNSG,  the parties agreed to  submit their differences to  the  ICJ. Contrary has ordered Zeitan not to leave the country, pending the judgment of the Court.


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