·Although water covers nearly three quarters of the earth’s surface, only a fraction is fresh water not locked ice fields. Here the unknown facts about water!! About half of the sources of the world’s freshwater is found in South America, almost a quarter in Asia and the remaining quarter is shared inhabitants of North America, Central America, Europe, Australia, Africa and the Middle East medium.
·The majority of water use goes to growing food: irrigation siphons off roughly two-thirds of the total water consumed.Industrial and economic activities are less than one-third and the remainder goes to domestic uses common, most of low quality, such as watering lawns and flushing the toilet.Men and women use water differently: men tend to use it for irrigation and other businesses and women for domestic purposes.
·Water distribution is often not equal and varies by class, gender and even ethnicity.To make matters worse, the poor generally pay more for water than the rich.
·currently being used all the best and cheapest sources of water.In some regions, we are approaching the limits: in the Middle East, for example, has already removed 58% of all fresh water reasonably available.In Eastern Europe the figure stands at 41%.
·Although technically feasible there are other strategies to increase water supply such as desalination of seawater or the transport of large volumes of water pipes or tankers, are not only complicated and expensive, but cost is likely to be ecological and political too high.
·For a growing number of people, water quality is a threat comparable to that of an insufficient supply.Already more than one billion people lack access to safe drinking water and 3 billion lack access to basic sewage systems.
·The cheaper and more efficient way to increase the supply of fresh water is driving the demand: reducing waste and making more use every drop to increase its effectiveness.
·Past approaches that favored large-scale projects and capital-intensive deliver water to many homes and farms, but did not fulfill what they promised.
·Thirty years of applied research supported by the International Centre for Development Research (IDRC) of Canada, offer a new approach to global efforts to curb water demand and alleviate poverty: the local water management.
·Experience worldwide shows that:
orthe shortage of water can be used more sustainably if they are managed locally.
orlocal management empowers people, especially the poor and disadvantaged.
orlocal management tends to prefer more traditional solutions rather than new ones.
orLocal water systems must be managed within a framework linked to watershed management and senior levels of government.
orlocal management works best when the people in charge of formulating policies take into account in their decisions the lessons of research in the field.
·approaches focusing on local water management have proven effective include:
orprovision of water in small scale, such as rainwater harvesting;
ortreatment and reuse of waste water to improve sanitation and provide water suitable for irrigation;
ortesting water quality in the community so that isolated rural communities can monitor the quality of their drinking water sources;
orwatershed management and irrigation, to improve soil productivity and reduce the considerable waste from irrigation.
Lessons from research supported byIDRC
·is best to assume that conditions are worse than they seem when managing groundwater and aquifers.For example, pumping rates and pollution levels are almost always much higher than estimated.
·Humble innovations can produce great benefits, people often decision makers do not take into account or to small groups and simple solutions.
·social and economic factors are always important when it comes to water management at local level.Researchers and policy makers must understand these factors to ensure success of programs for local water management.
·Scarcity forces trade-offs.To determine fairly who gets what, when, and how institutional capacity is needed, ie the ability to gather and evaluate information, to deliberate, to implement policies and to respond responsibly to the community.The development of this “institutional capacity”is needed both for local water management decisions for sustainable management of resources.
·traditional practices will change only when people perceive that change will bring benefits and must be convinced of the value of change.should be developed socially and culturally acceptable solutions, which are not against the local tradition.
Scaling-go beyond households to villages or neighborhoods is a solution that favors the rich because it requires capital or large tracts of land.If youdo not take into account these effects of inequality may further worsen the situation of poor and disadvantaged.