Foods contain different chemicals, commonly known as food sources. Decomposed by the digestion and the body absorbs them. Provide the energy necessary for life and are the building blocks of our body.
Between food resources contained in food include: organic compounds, carbohydrates, or sugars, proteins, fats, vitamins, fiber and inorganic compounds, ie mineral salts and water.
Energy is measured in kilocalories (kcal). Amount of energy that the body needs for one day, varies according to age, physical activity, body weight and other factors. To maintain correct body weight must be between diet and energy expenditure balance. So it’s good track information about the energy they contain a variety of dishes and foods.
There are two types of carbohydrates: sugars and starches. Starches are also known as polysaccharides. They are found in cereals, in bread, in pasta, on rice, the potatoes and legumes. Sugars are broken down into monosaccharides and polysaccharides, ie simple and compound sugars. Monosaccharides are part of the food and are found mainly in fruits and vegetables. Compound carbohydrates found in sugar, honey, sweets etc. Carbohydrates are an essential source of energy for our body. Only the brain needs about 100 grams per day of glucose. 60% of total energy intake consists of carbohydrates.
Fats or lipids are an important source of energy and building materials our body. Fats from food remain long in the stomach and intestine, because they are hard to digest. Once absorbed, the energy surplus and unusable fats stored in fat cells, creating caloric reserve.
Fats are classified by fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) on the solid, which are of animal origin such as butter, bacon, ointment and liquid, which have a predominantly vegetable origin, such as olive oil, seed oil and fish oil.
Unsaturated fatty acids are divided into monounsaturated fatty acids (fats of vegetable origin, for example. Olive oil) and polyunsaturated (vegetable fats and animal origin, eg. Seed oil and some fish oils). In addition, fats are divided into “visible” (olive oil and seed oil, butter, margarine, bacon, lard) and the “invisible” (contained in meat, cheese, eggs, fish and milk).
There are harmful and healthy fats. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids have a protective effect against atherosclerosis and heart disease. Fats of animal origin, with the exception of fish oil contain saturated fatty acids, which when consumed to excess are harmful to health. Foods containing fats are three types of fatty acids, but in different proportions. For example, butter contains no more than saturated fats, but the proportion of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
Proteins are the building materials needed for body growth and human development, knowledge creation and regeneration of old cells (mainly muscle) and control all functions of the human body. Proteins perform many other tasks where not all fats or carbohydrates.
Proteins are organic compounds consisting of very simple units (ie amino acids), linked together in chains of varying length, depending on the number of amino acids present. Amino acids are further divided into essential and nonessential. Nonessential amino acids the body produces itself, the essential body can not produce and therefore we need to take in the diet.
Digestion of proteins, which are among the substances with a high satiety index, starting in the stomach and continues in the duodenum. If the amino acids get into the intestine, absorption and begin their transition directly into the blood. Unused amino acids pass through the kidneys and excreted in the urine. Therefore, in the case of kidney disease need to reduce protein intake. Each gram of protein supplies 4 calories. Protein, which receive a diet in excess of our need to be converted into glucose and supply energy.
Protein “first class” containing all eight essential amino acids. Are animal or soy and are found in meat, dairy products, fish, eggs and soy products.
Protein “second class” are of plant origin, containing all amino acids (except soy) and located mostly in legumes. Protein should constitute 10% of our daily energy intake.
Fibers are known in particular in plants, undigested food coming into the intestines, where bacteria are subject through the fermentation process.
Fiber is divided into water-soluble and insoluble. A large part of plant contains two kinds of fiber. The water-soluble fiber, such as those found in citrus, apples, beans, barley, oats and Rye, help reduce LDL cholesterol. In addition, soluble fiber, regulate blood sugar levels and limit fat absorption in the gastrointestinal tract.
Insoluble fiber is mainly cellulose and in all plants, particularly vegetables, pulses, rice and grains. Cellulose is an important anti-jam, accelerates passage of intestinal contents through the intestine may prevent colon cancer, diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease. If you eat fiber along with fluids, facilitating satiety. Starches, such as contained in the potatoes or cereals, pass undigested into the intestine and assist in unloading.
Vitamins are organic substances essential for human life in small quantities (1 gram or even 1 microgram per day). The organism can not synthesize them itself, therefore the body must be supplied by diet. They have no energy value (such as proteins), but play the role of regulator of all organic functions – control the correct course of metabolic processes. Each vitamin has a different role. The most important vitamins are:
It is essential for creating cells. Its deficiency leads to problems during pregnancy and the rise of cardiovascular disease. The recommended daily amount may not exceed 1 mg. Located in legumes, leafy vegetables, liver, brewer’s yeast and fish.
Vitamin A and Beta-carotene
It is important for the eyes, promotes growth, protects the skin. Excess vitamin A accumulates in the liver and can damage the liver or bones. Daily intake should not exceed 7.5 mg for women and 9 mg for men. Located in foodstuffs of animal origin such as liver, milk, butter, eggs, cheese, oily fish. The organism can be transformed beta-carotene contained in carrots, in fruits and green vegetables in vitamin A. Beta-carotene is a vitamin contributing to the prevention of cancer and also has an antioxidant effect. The recommended daily amount of beta-carotene is 6 mg (equivalent to five portions of fruit and vegetables per day).
B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, B12)
Six water-soluble vitamins that are involved in many biological processes inherent to life. Are important for growth, proper functioning of the digestive system, mucous membranes and epithelium. In addition, ensure the integrity of the nervous system and support the processing of glucose. As they may accumulate in the body, their income must be regulated. These vitamins tend to degrade during the preparation, cooking or canning foods. It is generally recommended to take a large number of only one vitamin.
Vitamin B1 is found in sunflower seeds, pork, nuts, whole grain pasta Vitamin B2 is found in meats, dairy products, liver, bran, eggs, venison. Vitamin B3 is found in poultry and turkey meat, meat, tuna, swordfish, anchovies from, cereals containing bran. Vitamin B6 is found in meats, eggs, cereals, fish, bran, lentils. Vitamin B12 containing different types of meat, dairy products, mussels, oysters, scallops, sardines, oily fish and eggs.
This important antioxidant is important in slowing down the aging process of tissues. Participates in maintaining immune system function, increases protection from infection, accelerates the healing of wounds and fractures, controlling cholesterol, which prevents its accumulation in the blood and tissues. Vitamin C can cause bleeding gums and nosebleeds, increased susceptibility to infection and if this shortage continues, it can cause scurvy. Increased intake of this vitamin may result in diarrhea and stomach discomfort. Vitamin C contains mainly fruit and vegetables. This vitamin is easily canceled for cooking and for preserving food.
It is also important because it promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorus in bone. In children is a prerequisite for good development of the spine, in the elderly is the prevention of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Lack of this vitamin causes rickets in young and adult weakness and joint pain. Excess can cause kidney damage and calcium deposition in different organs. The primary source of vitamin D is sun (daily sun to expose just thirty minutes), cod liver oil, milk, dairy products, oily fish and eggs.
A powerful antioxidant that protects cell membranes and prevents thrombosis. Increases immunity, maintains healthy skin, helps the healing process of damaged tissues. Excess of this vitamin in general does not cause problems. The recommended daily dose ranges from 70 mg to 540 mg daily. This vitamin is found in cereals, nuts, avocados, sunflower oil, olive oil, almonds and liver.
Counteracts bleeding. Its lack of disturbances caused by blood clotting and bleeding. Found in many foods, especially in dark green leafy vegetables, fruit peel and in the liver.
They are inorganic substances and their supply depends on many vital functions of the organism. The minerals that are essential for our body include:
It is used to create bones and teeth. Has an important role in blood clotting, the contraction of the heart muscles and nervous system. Located primarily in milk, yoghurt, cheese, leafy vegetables and dry legumes. It is essential for the growth of children and in preventing osteoporosis. The human body contains approximately one kilogram of calcium. Maintaining this level is necessary to take one gram a day.
The human body contains approximately one kilogram of phosphorus, which is predominantly found in bone. It is important for cells and helps to maintain a proper balance of acids and bases in the body. Excess income may tip the balance between calcium and phosphorus in the body, and consequently there is a demineralized bone, so to osteoporosis. Foods rich in phosphorus are milk, cheese, meat. However, it is true that fish contain a lot of phosphorus.
Together with calcium prevents demineralized bone, increases resistance to fatigue and is important for maintaining a healthy heart and reduces the severity of coronary disease. It also works against arrhythmias. Relieves depression and anxiety. Magnesium include nuts, seeds, vegetables, cereals, cheese and eggs.
It is useful for muscles, nerves and heart. Its deficiency causes arrhythmias, muscle weakness and paralysis. Regulates fluid balance and is essential for the proper functioning of cells. Located in the fresh and dried fruits, legumes, nuts, garlic, potatoes and various vegetables.
Performs a similar function as potassium, but on the outside of cells. Its deficiency causes muscle cramps, mental apathy and loss of appetite. Excess salt intake may in turn increase the pressure and thus promote the emergence of cardiovascular disease, fluid retention (edema) and kidney stones. Sodium is found in table salt in canned foods, smoked meats, bouillon cubes, and nearly all industrially processed products, in sauces, cheeses, bread, etc.
Iron is an essential component of hemoglobin contained in red blood cells, which serve to transfer oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body. This mineral protects against infections and promotes healing. Its deficiency causes anemia. Better absorbed if taken with vitamin C (for example, after eating lentils should be eaten kiwi or orange). Women during menstruation lose a lot of iron and are prone to anemia. Iron is found in animal and plant foods – green leafy vegetables, legumes, cereals, red meat. Curry and ginger are also rich in iron.
It is important for growth, for development of the fetus, fertility, maintain healthy skin, strengthens the immune system and speeds recovery, helps to destroy free radicals. Is contained in dairy products, meat, legumes and wholegrain cereals. Zinc deficiency can result in poor and monotonous diet, and it can cause smoking and drinking.
Aluminum, bromine, cadmium, chlorine, cobalt, chromium, iodine, manganese, zinc, sulfur
Are other important minerals. Due to their everyday lives and urinary excretion in feces is important to supplement them regularly. Varied diet ensures an adequate supply of required minerals.
Water accounts for 60% of the human body. It is a unique and indispensable component of the body. Its deficiency leads to death and in a much shorter time than hunger. The average daily water intake should be 1.5 to 2 liters. The quantity of water received depends on climate, physical activity, eating.
The body is excreted in urine, faeces, then, skin and breathing. Water is not an energy source, does not contain calories, gaining weight from it. It may be natural or carbonated drink. Preferred is called. hard water, which, moreover, that promotes degradation of cholesterol and fat from the gut, protects against osteoporosis and kidney stones.