- THE NATURE OF ADMINISTRATE ORGANIZATION
It is ordering of human and material resources of an entity in such a way that these resources will contribute systematically to goal realization.
Arranging material resources is taken care by seeing or by seeing to it that office equipment and facilities and other hardware components are sequentially arranged on the basis of work flow.
Arranging people is a more difficult job. Men filling in positions must correspond and match the functions, duties and responsibilities of the position as the job description defines.
Organization theories serve as tools for designing organizations and formulating principles and guidelines to managers and administrators.
- It facilitates identification of problems.
- Posses prognostic value in relating events and occurrences.
- Provide criteria for choosing and evaluating courses of action.
- They help in setting up of standards for choosing decision alternatives.
- The larger the organization the more complicated the work processes and the greater the need for manpower, equipment and supplies.
- Workload has to be allocated.
- This requires setting up additional hierarchical levels as contact points.
- Related tasks have to be group together under a bureaucratic department.
- Specialization of function results.
- Authority needs to be delegated.
- Coordination points have to be established
- A system of control has to be instituted so that component units perform in accordance with prescribe norms and standards of operating procedures.
- Organizing unit activities and distributing workload among personnel are justified because men vary in wisdom, capacity, skills and dexterity. A responsible organization man should consider these individual givens in order to fully utilize the potentials of men.
Grouping together related tasks and assign those to individuals under the direction and overall guidance of a director or manager. We refer to this activity as work distribution and the process is known as departmentalization.
While there is no single criterion for departmentalizing, four criteria maybe useful:
- Purpose- answers the question of what is to be achieved.
- Process- it is concerned primarily with the steps and their sequencing.
- Clientele- refers to individuals and groups as recipients of favors and benefits, whether goods or services.
- Place- is the geographic area as the intended beneficiary.
The highest value among the four depends upon the prioritization scheme. Time and urgency of need are essential elements of choice. A principle for one stage may not be applicable for the succeeding ones. They have peaks of activity and experience decline, if not obsolescence.
*Note: Work complexity requires dispersal of roles through specialization, while division of labor is desirable. It should not move into organic division because splitting and separating related activities can bring about fragmentation which makes coordination difficult especially in mechanistic organization where coordination is primarily dependent upon hierarchy, where the chain of command is faithfully adhered to, and where instructions and decision of superiors are basic guides for the performance of subordinates. Departmentalization must guarantee sufficient workload in terms of man-hours as stipulated by law.
Coordination is the process in achieving unity in whatever two or more individuals or units.
It is better achieved in the case of those activities and functions which are allied or inter-related, conversely, it is difficult to achieve when activities and functions are disparate and unrelated.
The need for coordination is greater in:
- large organizations than in smaller organization
- with complex situations than with simple situations]
- in newly established or frequently changing organization than in stable ones
Coordination is intimately linked with departmentalization. Departmentalization based on purpose sees coordination a harmonizing agent of departmental sub-units with purposes finely turned to those of the department.
Coordination is more effective when there is only one source of authority
Ways of achieving coordination:
- establishing clear cut procedures and rules
This especially applies to routine activities and those which are done at regularly-spaced intervals and in case where activities are specially programmed with target dates of completion.
- use of the hierarchical structure
The work categories which have been classified are put under the responsibility of a supervisor in the structure of authority.
- use of matrix departmentalization
This is an approach which provides an alternative functional decentralization which demands more coordination.
- introducing a dominant idea or rationale
Ideas have power. Their capability to effect coordination is at best illustrated in what these can do even in the absence of leader or framework of authority
- Span of Control
The concept refers to the number of subordinates a superior is able to effectively direct and manage.
It is based on the psychological idea of span of attention.
Overseeing the activities of subordinates varies with
- capacity of the supervisor
- work habits of subordinates
- kind of work being performed
When work is routine, quantifiable, and homogenous, and workers are located on in one working area, wider span of control is justified while when work is diversified, qualitative and heterogeneous and workers work in different areas or are dispersed, the narrower the span of control needed.
When subordinates are not capable of self-direction the narrower the span, when they are capable of self-direction, the less the need for detailed instruction hence the wider the span
No constant number is applicable to al organizational situations. What is important is to recognize the interplay of situational variable in determining the specific number for a given situation.
- Decentralization vs. Centralization
The issue is not so much within the better between the two but rather the level of decentralization and degree of centralization.
The decentralization thrust is committed to creation and use of alternative mechanisms to improve delivery of basic services.
- deconcentration- mode of decentralization is administrative
There is no depreciation of authority and responsibility of the central office since the field units continue to be subject to the administrative supervision of the former.
- Devolution-This is a political decentralization which entails transfer of power and authority and resources from central to local level.
- Non-governmental organizations (NGO)- Exemplify private sector participation in enhancing local government as an alternative strategy for sustainable development.
- Privatization-involves the withdrawal of government from those areas of activity of society where private enterprises are shown to be more efficient and effective. Responsibility for certain government functions are transferred to the private sector.
- OPERATIVE PRINCIPLES OF DECENTRALIZATION
- Since autonomy is meaningless without provision for generating resource4s to carry out duties and responsibilities, local units are empowered to create and broader their source of revenue. They have the right to a share in the proceeds arising from the utilization and development of the national wealth within territorial jurisdiction
- The recipients of delegated powers are held accountable to the people through the institution of recall initiative and referendum.
- Local autonomy is assured not only by the enabling act of the national legislature but also by the administrative and organizational reform.
- Requiring local governments to pursue policies outlined by the central authority.
- The recall powers of the inhabitants as previously mentioned and local elections every three years serve as a periodic accountability.
- WHAT IS BUREAUCRACY?
Bureaucracy refers to the systematic organization of men and tasks into some kind of pattern that will facilitate the achievement of group effort. It is a system with component which includes men, offices, authority, and processes for translating community action into rationally ordered social action. Ideally characterize by technical specialization.
Legitimacy of power exercise is important to bureaucracy.
Authority arises by virtue of the formal organization but rather built in the course of social interaction and socialization processes.
Three ideal type authorities, when applied to bureaucratic model organization, they refer to basis of leadership:
- Traditional authority-establishes legitimacy of rulership as arising from the age-old practice handed down from generation to generation. Example would be monarchs.
- Charismatic authority- refers upon the individual personality of the leader, his innate charm to inspire loyalty and devotion from others. Examples are Ayatollah Khoemeni and Mahatma Gandhi.
- Legal-rational authority is established by rules, not necessarily inflexible but capable of being changed rationally as situations demand.
The Philippine Bureaucracy, while established upon rational-legal foundations, has elements of traditional and the charismatic as basis of legitimation.
Our bureaucracy is apparently based upon reciprocating where the behavior of bureaucrats influences the social structure and the organizational relationship influences the behavior of the bureaucrats. The positive implications are outweighed by the negative effects.
- PHILIPPINE ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE
There is no constitutional or statutory prescription as to the number of departments in the executive branch of the Philippine Government. However functional distribution of work and performance of functions by the executive have to consider.
Policy Guidelines for Implementation
- Program planning and implementation must be in accordance with national policies
- Bureaus and offices of a department are grouped on the basis of major functions
- Decentralization of departmental functions in order to reduce red tape, free national officials of administrative details and relieve them or routine and local matters.
- Delegation of appropriate authority to subordinate officers with decision making made at level closest to the community clientele
Jurisdiction of the Department
The department possesses jurisdiction over bureaus, offices, regulatory agencies and government owned and controlled corporations assigned to it by law. Administrative relationships are of three categories.
- supervision and control-
- Refers to the authority to direct performance of duty; restrain commission of acts; review, approve or modify acts and decisions of subordinate units and officials; prescribe standards, guidelines and programs and determine priorities in executing plans and programs.
- administrative supervision
- It means overseeing the operations of these agencies to ensure efficient, effective and economical management provided there is no interference in the activities of the agency concerned.. It may require agency to submit reports and as a disciplinary measure and control mechanism, the department may take appropriate action to require performance of official functions, rectify violations and other abuses and similar kinds of maladministration. The overseer role of the department is rendered meaningless since the regulatory agency is left almost free, independent and autonomous in its actions and decisions over crucial issues requiring some kind of check of control
- The department is entitled to have a representative in the corporate board of the agency. Through the departmental representative, general policies are outlined for the agency to guide its internal policies. While supervision and control powers are exercised by the department, sufficient initiative and freedom of action are encouraged by giving the bureaus and offices reasonable opportunity to decide before control is exercised by the department
- To implement plans and programs effectively, authority over and responsibility for operations may be delegated to bureau directors and regional directors. The regional field offices serves as the operating arms of the bureau
- THE DEPARTMENTS OF GOVERNMENT
The PRESIDENT heads the Executive branch of the government, which includes the Cabinet and all executive departments. The executive power, as such, is vested on the President alone.(Section 17, Article VII of the 1987 Constitution, Chapter 3, Article 1. Section 25 of the Local Government Code of 1991)
The Presidential Management Staff is an agency attached to Malacañang that is tasked to manage the development and formulation of the projects and policies of the Office of the President. There are three heads of the Presidential Management Staff the Presidential Chief of Staff, Presidential Management Staff and Cabinet Secretary
- General Government Sector
The agencies involved in the development and maintenance of an organization structure supportive of general government administration include:
Department of Budget and Management (DBM)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Pagbabadyet at Pamamahala)
It is responsible for the sound and efficient use of government resources for national development and also as an instrument for the meeting of national socio-economic and political development goals.
Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Ugnayang Panlabas)
Tasked to contribute to the enhancement of national security and the protection of the territorial integrity and national sovereignty, to participate in the national endeavor of sustaining development and enhancing the Philippines’ competitive edge, to protect the rights and promote the welfare of Filipinos overseas and to mobilize them as partners in national development, to project a positive image of the Philippines, and to increase international understanding of Philippine culture for mutually-beneficial relations with other countries.
Department of Finance (DOF)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Pananalapi)
Responsible for the formulation, institutionalization and administration of fiscal policies, management of the financial resources of government, supervision of the revenue operations of all local government units, the review, approval and management of all public sector debt, and the rationalization, privatization and public accountability of corporations and assets owned, controlled or acquired by the government.
- Agriculture, Agrarian Reform and Environmental Sector
The components of this sector aim at providing the mechanisms for the allocation of wealth of the nation, provide employment and income, ensure access to natural resources through sound environmental management policy.
Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Repormang Pansakahan)
Responsible for all land reform programs in the country, with the aim of promoting social justice and industrialization.
Department of Agriculture (DA)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Pagsasaka)
Responsible for boosting the income of farmers as well as reducing the incidence of poverty in the rural sector, as stipulated in the Government’s Medium Term Philippine Development Plan.
Department of Environment and Natural Resources(DENR)
(Filipino:Kagawaran ng Kapaligiran at Likas na Kayamanan)
The department is responsible for controlling and supervising the exploration, development, utilization, and conservation of the country’s natural resources.
- Trade and Industry Sector
This sector is involved in the task of reconciling the process of industrialization with the economic, social and political processes.
Department of Tourism (DOT)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Turismo)
Department of Trade and Industry(DTI)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Kalakalan at Industriya)
Tasked to expand Philippine trade and industry as the means to generate jobs and raise incomes for Filipinos.
- Infrastructure and Energy Sector
The goods and services are provided by this sector include infrastructure, power, transportation and communication. These provide the physical foundation for the economy to operate efficiently.
Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Pagawaing Bayan at Lansangan)
It is responsible for all safety of projects in the field of public works. It is also responsible for the maintenance of the Philippine road network and irrigation system.
Department of Transportation and Communication(DOTC)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Transportasyon at Komunikasyon)
It is responsible for the maintenance and expansion of viable, efficient, and dependable transportation and communications systems as effective instruments for national recovery and economic progress.
Department of Energy (DOE)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Enerhiya)
Responsible for preparing, integrating, coordinating, supervising and controlling all plans, programs, projects and activities of the Government relative to energy exploration, development, utilization, distribution and conservation.
- Education, Culture and Manpower Development Sector
Two departments implement the goals and programs of this sector:
Department of Education (DepEd)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Edukasyon)
It is responsible for the management and upkeep of the Philippine system of education. It is the chief formulator of Philippine educational policy and is responsible for the Philippine primary and secondary school system. Higher education is managed by the DepEd in coordination with another body, the Commission on Higher Education The DepEd is also known by its old name, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (Filipino: Kagawaran ng Edukasyon, Kultura at Palakasan), or DECS.
Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE)
Mandated to formulate policies, implement programs and services, and serve as the policy-coordinating arm of the Executive Branch in the field of labor and employment. It is also responsible for promoting gainful employment opportunities, developing human resources, protecting workers and promoting their welfare, and maintaining industrial peace. It is further tasked with the enforcement of the provisions of the Labor Code.
- Health and Social Welfare Sector
The efficient operation of the economy rests upon provisions of health, housing and other social services. Performance of these fulfils not only the humanitarian functions but also reinforces the collective efforts to pursue developmental goals.
Department of Health (DOH)
(Filipino:Kagawaran ng Kalusugan)
Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Kagalingang Panlipunan at Pagpapaunlad)
Is responsible for the protection of the social welfare rights of Filipinos and to promote social development
- Defense Sector
This sector is task to guarantee the sovereignty of the Republic of the Philippines, its territorial integrity and the security of its people.
Department of National Defense (DND)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Tanggulang Pambansa)
It is responsible for guarding the country against external and internal threats to its national peace and security. The Department of National Defense exercises executive supervision over the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), the Office of Civil Defense (OCD), the Philippine Veterans Affairs Office (PVAO), the National Defense College of the Philippines (NDCP), and the Government Arsenal (GA).]
- Science and Technology Sector
The thrust is discovery and development of indigenous technologies and adoption of the foreign to the local environment.
Department of Science and Technology (DOST)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Agham at Teknolohiya)
Is responsible for the coordination of science and technology-related projects in the Philippines and to formulate policies and projects in the fields of science and technology in support of national development
- Public Order and Safety Sector
The state provides mechanisms to ensure a just and humane society under the rule of law and a regime of justice, freedom, love equality and peace. Deprivation of life, liberty and property may be done only after due exhaustion of the due process of law clause of the constitution. There is the guarantee of equal protection of law.
Department of Justice (DOJ)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Katarungan)
Is responsible for upholding the rule of law in the Philippines.
Its mission is to establish and maintain a just and orderly society through an effective, speedy and compassionate administration of justice
- Local Government Sector
The local autonomy thrust has resulted in a responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through decentralization.
Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)
(Filipino: Kagawaran ng Interyor at Pamahalaang Lokal)
Is responsible for promoting peace and order, ensuring public safety, and strengthening the capabilities of local gorvernment units. It is also responsible for the Philippine National Police.
- Cultural Communities Sector
Kalinga Special Development Authority
Aims to hasten growth and development of Kalinga to enable inhabitants to actively participate in the task of national development
Office of Muslim Affairs (OMA)
Aims to preserve the culture, traditions, and institutions of Muslim Filipinos with regard to national unity.
National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP)is the primary government agency that formulates and implements policies, plans and programs for the recognition, promotion and protection of the rights and well-being of Indigenous Peoples (IPs) and the recognition of their ancestral domains and their rights thereto.