Pregnancy at otritsatelnosm Rh blood
What is Rh factor
Mankind is divided into those with Rh – factor positive, and those with Rh – factor is negative. Individuals with a positive Rh factor – a factor can not remember about it, but women with a negative Rh – factor should be aware of rhesus conflict.
Maybe not all imagine what the rhesus. Most people on the surface of red blood cells are proteins, known as the “Rh factor”. These people have a positive Rh – factor. But 15 percent of men and women in the erythrocytes of these proteins do not – that is they have a negative Rh factor.
If the blood of such a person will get someone else’s red blood cells bearing the protein of rhesus, they will be his immune system as foreign. The body begins to produce antibodies. There will rhesus conflict. This unpleasant phenomenon – Rh sensitization or Rh-conflict may occur through transfusion of Rh – incompatible blood and in pregnant women with negative Rh-factor, if the blood of the fetus Rh-positive.
Probability of Rhesus-conflict
The probability of Rh – conflict exists in 75 percent of cases, if a woman is negative Rh factor and her husband (the father of a child) – a positive Rh factor. All other combinations of Rh – Accessories spouses do not lead to Rh – conflict. But if a woman has a negative Rh factor, and the male rhesus positive – a factor – that is no reason to abandon a family. First, when competent prevention of risk of the consequences of Rh – conflict can be reduced to nothing. And secondly, rhesus conflict during the second pregnancy is not at all.
When Rh – incompatible pregnancy, much depends on what it did. After a miscarriage sensitization, ie the formation of antibodies in the blood, occurs in 3-4 percent of cases, whereas after a medical abortion – in a 5-6, after an ectopic pregnancy – about 1 percent of the cases after normal delivery – 10-15 . The risk of sensitization at a negative Rh factor increases after cesarean section or if there were placental abruption. That is, it all depends on how many red blood cells get into the bloodstream of the fetus mother. Nevertheless, in all cases, the need to prevent the terrible consequences of Rh – conflict – hemolytic disease of the fetus.
If the pregnancy – the first
If the earlier woman with a negative Rh factor is not met with Rh – positive blood, then it has no antibodies, and consequently the risk of Rh – conflict with the fruit. The first pregnancy produced antibodies are not so much (this is the “first meeting”). If the number of infiltrators in the mother’s blood erythrocytes of the fetus was significant in a woman’s body remained “memory cells”, which in subsequent pregnancies organize rapid production of antibodies against the Rh factor.
If a woman has Rh-antibodies, and fruit-Rh – positive.
Antibodies mother cross the placenta and “snatch” on the erythrocytes of the child. Thus in his blood a large quantity of a substance called bilirubin. Bilirubin stains the baby’s skin yellow (jaundice) and the worst – could damage his brain. Because fetal erythrocytes continuously destroyed his liver and spleen were trying to accelerate the development of new red blood cells, while increasing in size. In the end, and they can not cope with the completion of loss of red blood cells.
There comes a strong anoxia, spins a new round of serious violations. In severe cases, it ends with congenital dropsy (edema) of the fetus, which may lead to his death.
If a woman has Rh-antibodies in the blood and their titer increased.
This indicates the beginning of Rh – conflict. In this case, require treatment in a specialized perinatal center, where a woman and child will be under constant surveillance. If we can bring the pregnancy to 38 weeks, performing elective Caesarean section. If not – resort to in utero blood transfusion: through the anterior abdominal wall mother penetrate into the umbilical vein and pour fruit 20-50 ml erythrocytes. The procedure is carried out under ultrasound control.
Prevention of Rh-conflict.
In the women’s consultation pregnant necessarily tested for Rh factor. If Rh negative, it is necessary to determine rhesus affiliation father. At risk of Rh-conflict (the father Rh positive – a factor) the blood of women during pregnancy has repeatedly investigated for the presence of Rh – antibodies. If not, then she is not sensitized, and this pregnancy rhesus conflict does not happen. Immediately after birth, determine the Rh factor in your baby. If Rh positive, then not later than 72 hours after birth mother introduced antirhesusimmunoglobulins, which prevent the development of Rh-conflict in the subsequent pregnancy. You will act wisely, if, going to the hospital, grasp with an anti-D immunoglobulin (of course, if you have a negative Rh factor – a factor of blood).
The same prevention immunoglobulin women with negative Rh factor must be held within 72 hours after:
· Ectopic pregnancy
· Transfusion Rh-positive blood
· Platelet transfusion
· Placental abruption
· Trauma in a pregnant
· Amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (manipulation of fetal membranes)