Postwar development of foreign musical culture took place in a deepening split in the world, strengthening the struggle between two social and economic systems, military-political blocs, decision of the Cold War, nuclear psychosis, ideological and cultural confrontation. Humankind, which suffered unprecedented human, material and spiritual losses during World War II, faced big task to raise from the ruins of material culture, spirituality and heal the wounds of civilization.
Most typical for foreign culture was further development of the so-called “mass culture”, which is a traditional Soviet cultural evaluated as a crisis of culture. Most Western culture tend to treat the “mass culture” as a popular, mass culture, accessible to the broadest population. In the literature in recent years increasingly instead of “mass culture” used the term “popular culture” as a synonym for folk. You should be aware that scientific and technological progress led to a kind of revolution in media, television, printing works of art. Formed commercial culture industry on the basis of using television, radio, recording, film, other communications, which helped modernize the old art forms and give new impetus, including vanguard: pop art, retro-style, etc..
Mass culture has received wide field of action is in the arts, which has a relatively easier access to mass consciousness and aimed mostly at the leisure and entertainment. The West continued to form an entertainment industry that tyrazhuvala culture “serial” production. However, due to this industry expanded opportunities for senijr increasingly larger segments of the population to the artistic treasures of high culture. Mass culture is imposed komformizm, she had to resist the spread of communist ideology, to defend Western society. And in the framework of mass culture born pop culture as a kind of protest, rebellion or Counterculture. Movies, television, sound recordings, video and later began to supplant traditional forms of attracting people to culture: family reading, home music. Because of political scientists, including American scientist J. McDonald, tend to perceive in popular culture parody of high culture.
Americanization and touched the world of music, which is the most popular jazz, and he in turn gives birth to rock and roll – original mix of jazz, song and dance. He picked up the famous band “The Beatles” and “Rolling Stones” in the UK, from where he returns to the U.S., and becomes more popular worldwide.
Clearly, the development of closely linked with the technical, economic, political and social development. Not by chance, the legislators became the most developed countries.
The roots of rock music can go far in antiquity: in folk music and jazz, and blues, but rock was really the same as we understand it now, only 50 years. Rock ‘n’ roll was the same way, combining black and white teenagers, one mighty gulp zmely racial and social prejudices. Two idols of black youth in 1950’s – Little Richard and Chuck Berry – stage every gesture, every sound of his songs express refusal to obey traditionally racist: “Come over here, boy.” It certainly took failure white guys who listened to – they were already prepared for such music, they’ve vsmoktuvaly a black rhythm and blues that Krutyliv on local radio stations. This music was their common secret conspiracy against their parents who did not recognize color.
Rock and roll music form was first proposed as a teenager and a special on it skroyenoyu: to the last plate adults, children’s plates, but there was nothing that would especially express hopes and dreams of teenagers, especially teenagers relation to reality. This draft teenagers to “other” music first find the owners of small studies transcribe more choice in mobile and prone to risk than firms giants. And since many small campaigns, where black performers recorded rhythm and blues, and even probavlyalysya white country-and-veternom (and vice versa), these areas were close. New generation willingly accepted this approach. “Depraved taste”, “music shyrvzhytok”, “potakannya most lowland instincts” – murmured music critics (and for some reason, of course, were right, because, besides genuine stars, then wave to the surface was made and a lot of debris).
Rock ‘n roll current peace ripped 50’s, with whoop and whistle swept by surface eyzenhauerskoyi peaceful era. But to the early 60’s, his spirit was painted, and in waves radioefyru poplyly sweet voices of Frank and Paul Anky Avalon, Connie Francis and Mitch Miller (the last time and again declared his hatred for rock and roll) music observers were complacent : music seems to return law and order. Yet a few years the rock alive, and by the end of the decade turned into a powerful political and cultural force.
By the early 60’s to the next generation nearing adulthood. Parents of these children are actively boroly for world peace and prosperity, hoping that the generations not only appreciate their efforts, but rozsunut horizons of this new world. Parents, however, it came loaded with outstanding debts – they brought with him the fear of nuclear war and racial hatred of sin, and the ideals of equality and justice simply roztoptaly in pursuit of stability and success. Not surprisingly, children were questioned and moral and political foundations of the postwar world, this new mood is reflected in their musical passion.
Dylan’s lyrics about racial oppression and the threat of nuclear annihilation immediately turned to hymns and the song “The times – they change” sounded the first warning about the growing social tensions. However, in spite of very clear commitment to the ideals of folk remained still music of the past, means of communication politicized intellectuals, with undisguised irony that looked at children’s entertainment – rock and roll. The new generation did not have his own, unique voice.
Renaissance rock and roll began to surprise many in the city, far enough from the U.S. and zakutkovomu – Liverpool. When Brayn Epstayn, managing a local music store went once a tavern called “pocket”, he heard the music group that played there, not just a local capture winder joy of life rhythm of America. In the Beatles stormed the British disaster courage-an outsider who tried to grab all the same things that he was still denied.
Pidchystyvshy early bitlivsku negligence, Epstayn manager of a pet left in this fighting spirit. February 9, 1964 the Beatles appeared before 70 million American viewers. It was a historic event. It gave bridges between countries and styles, it is created new borders – between time and generations.
Bob Dylan is more acutely felt limited their audience, narrow stylistic framework of the genre. And Bob Dylan invited his old flock a completely new short program, “electric” music. Hearing the guitar wail, folk purist zavyly response, and new music Dylan has vlyvalasya life-giving stream of rock. Beatles and Dylan zatryasly all based youth culture, time, and changed the direction of its development, discovered the principles that are fundamental today. Dylan polityzuvav Beatles: he just made them see reason for the popularity of refinement civilian positions, as well as an ideal opportunity to publish their views on developments of concern to all. Tying the Beatles, Dylan became the driving force behind the 60’s. Yet even she did not use out a full sweep of the youth movement.
Towards them with Memphis vyplesnuvsya barrage, “dirty” soul. Decades moved to a climax, growing incandescences racial clashes and soul music – with such jazz giants as Miles Davis, John Coltrane, Charles Minhus or Eric Dolph – published in the vanguard of this struggle; proud power Negro consciousness embodied in it fully . Black pop music has made such statements on racial liberation, which until 10 years ago and it was scary to think about. But maybe the main victory that time was the merger of two cultures: white and black. It was a bright, festive, slightly nutty Union, which seemed impossible is nothing left. The new music embodied the dream of unity and equality, harmony and tolerance.
In the second half of the decade of disasters hit rock: the Beatles announced the definitive end of the concert, in 1966 Bob Dylan hit the car and the whole year was excluded from the creative process in 1967 for the preservation of drugs were arrested Mick Jagger, Keith Richards , Brayn Jones – Members of the Rolling Stones.
In January 1968 Dylan released “John Wesley Harding” – the album, as if all that is exploring the nation’s health, which disintegrates from within, but entirely devoid of paint and audacious, audacious in its acoustic simplicity. This album led to a full review of Rock-n-rolnogo values. Again erupted interest blues guitarists in the hit parade sounded hospelz, unsigned group acoustic sound, somehow became a new way to treat even the performers country-and-western. Rock-n-roll, and later so zyvanyy “vanguard” in charge of future riots, that shaking of society. Dister Allen, author of The English rock: “Rock, who vklynyvsya in society, there is deep. On it is judged on its surface, the external manifestations of clothes, and not readily notice that this hidden colored façade: questioned traditional values, such as the army, politics, religion, and there was a new perspective on relationships between people … Rock is communication. He – a sound background generation that identifies with him. ” In the early 70’s crisis has been rock scene. Rock has become a store of exotic goods from the showcase in the whole wall. Rock becomes more and more commercial music, is full retreat from spiritual roots, the born and created for the rebellion.