Climate is a combination of different factors such as the temperature, the moisture, the wind and heat of the sun in a particular place. It is the total or an average weather condition in a particular region over a long period of time.
The study of climate is called Climatology. Climatologist studies climate by observing the weather of a given place from season to another season and year to year. (intercall coupon)
Based on the temperature, the Earth has three climate zones. The first is the Tropical climate zone. The countries in the Earth within this zone have an average temperature of 180 degree Celsius.
The next is the Temperate climate; the countries within this zone usually have four seasons; winter, summer, spring, and autumn or fall. Within this zone the temperature is moderate; it is within the temperature of the other two zones, the Tropical and the Polar.
The third is the Polar climate; of all the zones this has the coldest average temperature. During the warmest month of this zone, the temperature will not go higher than 10 degree Celsius.
There are factors that affect the temperature of this certain places. One factor is the latitude, the distance to the north or to the south of the equator is measured in the degrees of latitude. Within the equator, the sun hit the Earth most directly so the places near it are experiencing a warm climate all-year-round.
The next factor is the altitude; it refers to the height or the elevation of a particular place from the level of the sea. As the height above the sea level becomes higher, the temperature of the Earth becomes lower. It is because the temperature drops about 2 degree Celsius for every 300 meters or about 1000 feet of altitude.
Another factor is the bodies of water, the bodies of water such as oceans and its current also affects the climate of a particular place. The ocean currents that travel towards the equator are cool while those currents that travel away from the equator are warm. The ocean currents flow from the Tropical regions going to the Polar Regions, and ocean currents from the Polar region flow going to the Tropical regions thus, ocean current affect the climate of the world.
The surface temperature of the bodies of water also affects the temperature of the place that surrounds it. Because large bodies of water change temperature slowly, the places near the seacoast have milder winter and cooler summer.
Still another factor that affects climate is the wind system. Because of the unequal heating of the land surface and bodies of water on the surface of the Earth, wind is formed. During the day, the land surface heats up faster than the bodies of water. Because of this, the warm air from the land surface rises and moves towards the bodies of water and the cold air from the bodies of water replace the heated air on the land surface. This continues exchange of air; the rising heated air and the sinking cold air produces the convection currents.
In large surfaces such as continents and oceans; the continents heat and cools faster compared to oceans. This activity develops a low pressure in the continent surface and a high pressure over the surface of the adjacent ocean. The scenario will bring the wind systems, the seasonal wind and the monsoon wind.
The amount of the Rainfall in a particular place is also a climate factor, it is determined by the wind system.