The electric circuit is a closed path fro current flow. Electricians are concerned with many types of circuits as series, parallel, and the complex or combination circuit. Series circuit is the basic circuit that students in electricity should know and understand. All devices in this circuit are connected end-to-end in a close path, and the same amount of current flows through each device. For a circuit to have a continuous flow of current, it must have the following:
1. Load (current-converting device). This is a unit which converts electrical energy into another from of energy to do work. It may be a lamp, motor, radio or any electrical appliance.
2. Source. This consists of batteries, generators or a main electrical power supply which supplies electricity.
3. Paths or lines. These are wires that connect the load to the source and through which electric current flows.
4. Control. These are switches, push buttons, relays, and other gadgets which regulate or control the flow of electric current.
The Circuit Terms
1. Open circuit – when there is a brake in the circuit and the current could not pass through, the circuit is open. When the switch is “off” the circuit is open or cut-off.
2. Close circuit – when there is a continuous flow of current from the source without interruption, the circuit is closed. When the switch is “on” the circuit is closed.
3. Short circuit – there is a short circuit when the electric current takes a short cut from its usual path.
4. Ground circuit – the circuit is said to be a ground circuit when metals are used as path for electric current to travel, like the circuit used in the electrical installation for automobiles.
Types of Circuits
There are two basic kinds of electrical circuits: the series and the parallel. In a series circuit the current flows only in one direction or there is only one path through which electric current flows.
In a parallel circuit, the current flows in two or more paths. Two or more components may be connected across a single voltage source.
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