Ferrous and Non-ferrous Metals are the two basic types of metals. Ferrous metals contain iron; while non-ferrous metals are those which do not contain iron. An alloy is a mixture of two or more kinds of metals.
Example of common Ferrous metal:
1.Pure iron is silvery white in color. It is very soft and ductile. It is alloyed with other metals to suit a specific purpose.
2. Wrought iron is commonly used for ornamental purposes. It contains only one to two percent slag but does not contain carbon.
3. Cast iron is produced when melted iron ore is combined with carbon from the coal or coke used to heat it.
4. White cast iron contains 2.0 -2.5% iron which makes it very hard. Hardness, however, makes the metal brittle. White cast iron is mostly used in the production of machine parts.
5.Malleable cast iron is very ductile. It can be stretched, bent or distorted without breaking.
6. Gray cast iron contains about 2.5 to 3.5% carbon. This kind of metal is used for casting.
7. Steel is an alloy containing great percentage of carbon. To produce different properties for various uses, other elements such as phosphorus, manganese, nickel, and sulfur are added.
Example of Non-ferrous metal:
1. Gold – the most widely used metal for jewelry and gold plating. It is very soft, but very ductile and malleable.
2. Silver – considered as the best conductor of heat and electricity. It is slightly harder than gold. It is used in electricity and takes the place of copper.
3. Aluminum – considered second to gold in malleability and sixth in ductility. It can be alloyed with cobalt, copper, zinc, magnesium, and berkelium.
4. Copper – a reddish metal which is commonly used as electrical conductor. When alloyed with tin, it turns to bronze; with zinc, it becomes brass.
5. Nickel – also a good conductor of electricity; it is hard, malleable and ductile and is usually alloyed with German silver and steel.
6. Tin – a silvery-white and very malleable and ductile metal, which can be rolled into very thin sheets. This is mostly used for coating other metals and made into food containers.
7. Lead – a poor conductor of electricity because of its very soft, ductile and malleable qualities. It can be cut with a knife and bent with bare hands. IT is used extremely in plumbing, as galvanize iron for footing where lead washers are used.
8. Chromium – a metal very resistant to corrosion; often alloyed with steel to produce building materials.
9. Platinum – an expensive white me4tal that is hard, malleable and ductile and very resistant to heat and corrosion. It is used for making chemical and scientific apparatus and in jewelry.
10. Tungsten – a graying-black hard metal that melts easily; it is used as filaments for incandescent bulbs.
11. Monel metal – an alloy of nickel, copper and a small percentage of iron which is made into the propellers of ships.
12. Muntz’ metal – consist of a mixture of 60% copper and 40% zinc makes up very hard brass. It is used where hard brass is required to make it harder.