The possibility of miniaturization of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices has made them highly suitable for VLSI. It will tremendously reduce the size of the systems and make digital computations much fast, reliable and cheap. VLSI is the best possible way of exploiting the micro fabrication resources and making an optimum and the best use of the silicon chip. Miniaturization enhances the packing density of an integrated circuit (IC). The size of the wafers has also enhanced manifold with advances in technology therefore big systems and circuits are being focused on the chips.
The beginning of the new millennium, silicon technology has crossed 50 yrs of its eventful existence overseeing the evolution from the simple SSI chip to today’s SOC (System on Chip) comprising several tens of millions of ultra small. MOSFET’S and other components while the dominant VLSI technology today is deep sub micron.
The electronics industry has achieved a phenomenal growth over the last two decades, mainly due to the rapid advances in integration technologies, large-scale systems design – in short, due to the advent of VLSI. The number of applications of integrated circuits in high-performance computing, telecommunications, and consumer electronics has been rising steadily, and at a very fast pace. Typically, the required computational power (or, in other words, the intelligence) of these applications is the driving force for the fast development of this field. The current leading-edge technologies (such as low bit-rate video and cellular communications) already provide the end-users a certain amount of processing power and portability. This trend is expected to continue, with very important implications on VLSI and systems design. One of the most important characteristics of information services is their increasing need for very high processing power and bandwidth (in order to handle real-time video, for example). The other important characteristic is that the information services tend to become more and more personalized (as opposed to collective services such as broadcasting), which means that the devices must be more intelligent to answer individual demands, and at the same time they must be portable to allow more flexibility/mobility.
As more and more complex functions are required in various data processing and telecommunications devices, the need to integrate these functions in a small system/package is also increasing. The level of integration as measured by the number of logic gates in a monolithic chip has been steadily rising for almost three decades, mainly due to the rapid progress in processing technology and interconnect technology