The Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where tow tectonic plate slide past one another. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth’s crust (called “non-hotspot intreplate volcanism”), such as in the East African Rthe Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and the Rio Grande Rift in North America.
Volcanoes can be caused by mantle plumes. These so-called hotspots, example at Hawaii, can occur far from plate boundaries. Hotspot volcanoes are also found elsewhere in the solar system, especially on rocky planets and moons.
A supervolcano is a large volcano that usually has a large caldera and can potentially produce devastation on an enormous, sometimes continental, scale. Such eruptions would be able to cause severe cooling of global temperatures for many years afterwards because of the huge volumes of sulfur and ash erupted. They are the most dangerous type of volcano. Examples include Yellowstone Caldera in Yellowstone National Park and Valles Caldera in New Mexico (Both western United States), Lake Taupo in New Zealand, Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia and Ngorogoro Crater in Tanzania. Supervolcanoes are hard to indentify centuries later, given the enormous are they cover. Large igneous provinces are also considered supervolcanoes because of the vast amount of basalt lave erupted, but are non-explosive.