Science, A fascinating branch of knowledge. Some time starting other time frightening but very fascinating and mysterious. Every human being has an element of curiosity. This primitive instinct of curiosity towards unknown draws them towards mystery. Sometime believable, other time unbelievable and that is what the science is. Few yeas back if some one has told us that one day human will walk on moon, nobody would have believed him. Today it is a truth. Nobody believed Galileo and he parished because of more knowledge.
The relationship of science and human is very old but is of love and hate. Whatever human could understand, he found the way of using it in the advantage of human kind. He also made bomb to destroy the same human kind. Yet, after so many years of research and new discoveries, contradiction still prevails. Grey areas of scientific horizons are still being explored to understand, to know, and to benefit from it.
I would like to draw your attention towards these contradictions of science, which you may find horrifying or may be fascinating. We all know “what a wonderful and complex machine a human body is!” but we have still not understood its full potential as well as functioning. There are grey areas of human body and science relationship. Let’s look at the example of ECG that has saved the life of many people by detecting malfunctioning of heart. We have invented Electro Cardio Gram, ECG to detect anomalies in the functioning of the heart but we are still not very sure about how and why ECG works.
Let me share with you another startling discovery of science. That is, every human body produces a carcinogenic (Cancer) cell quite frequently. In simple words, our body, yours and mine included, is producing singular or multiple cancer cell on any given day (even now, when you are reading this ) and we are not even aware of it but thanks to our wonderful body’s defence mechanism, our body’s immunization system destroys these random growth of carcinogenic cell. Now think about it’s implication? That means many of us are going through that process even now. Some one’s body is producing a cancer cell; some one is getting destroyed. Even now, many of us are going through that phenomenon, including myself. These researchers at Columbia University were they were recording resonance of cancer cell in blood through laser and optics has found this. So as this finding we are all producing one cell in our body that is carcinogenic or a cancer cell quite frequently than we can imagine. But all of us do not suffer from cancer thanks to our immunization system. They destroy these cells without letting us feel it and without waiting for our permission. Some times, some person’s immunization system fail, because of various reason and from that single cell, the growth of cancer start. It is believed that it takes almost 8 years for the cancer growth to become detectable since it starts as a single cell.
The largest sufferers of cancer are 12 % of the women above the age of 45 years. They suffer from breast cancer. In most of the cases cancer growth gets detected late and they end up by loosing their breast, an essential part of woman’s beauty. World wide, breast cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death (after lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colon cancer). In 2005, breast cancer caused 5, 02,000 deaths (7 % of cancer death, almost 1 % of all deaths) world wide. The number of cases has significantly increased since 1970s of phenomenon partly blamed on modem life styles in the western world.
Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells from in the tissues of the breast. It often starts as a small lump in the breast. Which can occur in both women and men because the breast is composed of identical tissues in males and females, breast cancer also occurs in males, though it is less common? The cause of breast cancer is not known. Any person can get breast cancer, but some women are more likely to develop it then others. The good news is that breast cancer is a disease that can be treated and cured if detected early.
Human breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes, with many smaller sections called lobules. Thin tubes called ducts connect each section. The most common type of breast cancer is the one that affect these tubes called ductal carcinoma. It is found in the cells of the ducts. Cancer that begins in the lobes or lobules is called lobular carcinoma, which more often in both breasts than any other types of breast cancer. Most breast cancers studied here are infiltrating ductal carcinoma, benign tumors are mostly fibroadenomas, with both intracanalicular and pericanalicular types.
These early detection of a breast cancer can be treated and life can be saved has got me curious and fascinating and that became the base for research. The current detection method at present is biopsy of the affected tissues. Biopsies are often painful and not always accurate. It needs substantial mass of carcinogenic cells in the tissues for detection. The other methods are like Mammograms can detect some cancers before a lump can be failed. They detect abut 80 – 90 % of cancerous lumps. Mammograms and other tests, such as Ultrasounds and some times MRI Scans are also used to check lumps once they have been found on exam. Most breast lumps are not cancer. Often they fluid filled cysts in the breast tissues that get larger and smaller with the menstrual cycle.
To find out more accurate methods of detection cancer at early stage, I started my research with alternative method of diagnosis of human breast cancer. As I was telling you, it is believed that it takes almost takes 9 years for the cancer growth to become detectable since it starts as a single cell. Suppose if we can detect this cancer cell growth very early, say even when there are 4 or 5 cells in the body, and if we remove them immediately then ? no cancer can develop in any person. Sounds like a fantasy but who knows we may be able to do that it so in next 10 to 15 years with collective efforts of the entire community of research, scientist working in this film all over the world, it may become possible. Detection may become as common as a blood test for Malaria or a single X – ray to detect Pneumonia!!!
You may be wondering how? Let me tell you this work in plain language. With the help of PHYSICS. Many researchers are working on this subject of women biology. The physics is helping them to deciphere the complex tissue of saving thousands of life and saving from frightening diseases like CANCER through a wavelet transform and matrix mechanics. A small wavelet, a fractional part of a single wave is being used, and will be instrumental in saving all these lives in future. Although the beneficial property of light have been known for a long time advent of lasers in 1960s has made possible the efficient use of light for surgery and diagnosis. The highly collimated beam of laser cab focused to a microscopic area of extremely high energy density, which makes it useful as a cutting and cauterizing instrument. Laser based endoscopic techniques and imaging methods can be used for real time diagnosis of diseases without biopsy.
In the field of bio medical applications, fluorescence spectroscopy has been used fruitfully for diagnosis as well as therapeutic purposes. Morphological and biochemical change inside a tissue, due to disease cause the fluorophores inside the tissue of fluoresce differently, as compare to their normal counter parts. Due to its sensitivity to minute variations, fluorescence spectroscopy can provide quantitative biochemical information about the state of the tissue, which may not be obtained using standard pathology. Over other light based investigation methods fluorescence spectroscopy is often preferred because its high sensitivity, high speed and safety. Over the past 15 years its diagnostic potential has been tested in different organs of the body, including the mouth, breast, esophagus, and bladder and for the tooth decay detection. In fluorescence spectroscopy fluophores having excitation frequencies in the UV and visible regimes have been used as markers. To be more specific, several fluorescing compounds, such as flavines, nucleotides (NADH), tryptophan, tyrosine, elastin, collagen etc are present in tissues. Flavins are intrinsic mononucleotide (FMN) and free riboflavin is the three forms of riboflavin encounter in biological materials. These flavins may be attached to proteins or may be free. These coenzymes that play a role in the oxidation – reduction process of the tissues. Hence, these may play a major role in triggering tumor growth. My investigation is primarily concerned with the flavins and other fluorophores having emission peaks in the visible region. Recently the method of wavelet transform has been employed to studied intensity fluctuations in the polarized fluorescence spectra of human breast tissues. A preliminary analysis indicated that fluctuations at the finest scale are much more randomized for the cancerous. Tissues in comparison to normal benign tissues. The fact that cancerous tissues possess nuclei, which have irregular shapes and are much more densely packed as compared to the normal and benign tissues. Benign tissues of the pericanalicular type behave closer to cancerous tissues and the intracanalicular type similar to normal tissues. In the initial phase of the tumor growth this features are not expected to be quite prominent. It may be possible that differences in spectral fluctuation could manifeste much earlier as compared to the above mentioned growth features.
So basically, when the cell samples are targeted with a laser beam of a certain wavelength, fluorphores presents in the cells starts emitting fluouroscenes at different wavelength. This value of emissions and fluctuation are segmented and broken in two small fragments by wavelet transform. This segmented range of emission in different in cancerous cell in comparison with normal cells range. Cancerous cells fluorophores emits at a much higher wavelength range.
The need for the early identification and constant monitoring of breast cancer for a large population will make this method eminently suitable since the same can be automated.