The practice of consuming a diet based on vegetables, fruits, nuts, seed and cereal grains, with or without some dairy products and eggs, is called vegetarianism. Vegetarians do not eat meat, fish, shellfish and may abstain from products that result from animal slaughter, such as gelatin.
Vegetarianism may be adopted for several reasons, such as religious, cultural, aesthetic, environmental, health, policital, economic and so on, , and there are a number of vegetarian diets. Lacto-vegetarianism, ovo-vegeterianism, ovo-lacto-vegetarianism, veganism, raw veganism, fruitarianism and su vegetarianism are the available diets for vegans.
Research about the benefits of vegetarianism revealed that the mortality from ischemic heart disease was 30% lower among vegetarian men and 20% lower among vegetarian women than in nonvegetarians. Some necessary nutrients, proteins, and amino acids can be found in vegetables, soymilk, nuts, eggs and grains. Vegetarian diets are lower in saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein, and they are higher levels in carbohydrates, fibre, and elements like magnesium, potassium, folate; they also contain antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals
One of the best-known benefits of vegetarianism is the longer life expectancy. Vegans, on average, live a little longer than the rest of the population that is not on a vegetarian diet. Also, the magnesium supplementation from the vegetarian diet had been demonstrated that the women who were affected by osteoporosis in a period of 2 years had a slower bone loss and suffered fewer fractures than in a control group. Also the diet rich in potassium decreased the rates of calcium excretion.
Despite the benefits that are received from a vegetarian diet, the human body is also affected by some negative aspects. For example, the human organism requires an estimated daily dose of creatine of about 2 grams. Non-vegetarians typically get about 1 gram of creatine a day from various meats they ingest; vegetarians have a reduced creatine pool, the lack of dietary creatine resulted from the avoidance of meat not being adequately compensated by the increase in endogenous creatine production. Studies had shown that an amount of 20-25 grams of creatine daily for 5 to 6 days in a row increases significantly the muscle creatine in most people, especially to those with low levels such as vegetarians.
Vegetarians are particularly subject to pernicious anemia, which is resulting from the deficiency of vitamin B12, unless they suppliment the lack of vitamin B12 through the consuming of milk and eggs. A lack of vitamin B12, that is found only in animal sources, can seriously interfere with the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Other complications that can occure are iron deficiency, animal protein deficiency, and also vitamin D deficiency, which can interfere with the body’s ability to absorb calcium