Basic Statistics

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Statistics is the collection, compiling, analysis and interpretation of the data. Without statistics there is no scientific research. Any scientific work must start with statistics and end with statistics.

Data collection

      There are two types of data collection.

  • Primary data collection through observation, surveying, and experimentation

  • secondary data collection through print or electronic media

The data type may be numerical as in quantitative data (which may be continuous or discrete) or categorical as in qualitative data.

                In order to collect a data we need a sample and the sample size should be calculated. The sampling techniques vary according to the data type (which may be nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio types). The various sampling methods include,

  • Simple random sampling

  • Systematic random sampling

  • Stratified random sampling

  • Cluster random sampling

Of these methods stratified random sampling is the best method since it distributes the samples to the control and test categories equally and fairly. Cluster random sampling is recommended by WHO for conducting research worldwide where there is no possibility of stratified random sampling. Clusters are obtained by dividing a population into geographically compact units. We should have at least 7 clusters.

Compilation and presentation

  • Title should be explanatory

  • Commonality should be placed in the head note

  • Unusuality is placed in the footnote


     It is the method of extraction of useful data from the collected data for making decisions or predictions. There are two types of data analysis.

  • Univariate

  • Multivariate


 The Results are interpreted in a reader friendly form and the hypothesis is tested for precision and validity.


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