Advertising is the medium where familiar or new products are introduced to consumers. Aim of which is to reinforce the image of an known product or create a positive one to associate with a new product. The main objective is to attempt to convince and persuade the consumer to do the purchase. Advertising is one stage of the process which the consumer goes through in order to make a buying decision. An effective advertisement can have the ability to encourage respondents to switch loyalties to old brands in favor of new brands or buying a popular brand product because a celebrity endorses it or driving a particular car because it supposedly gives them an edge over their peers.
To understand how advertising works. We can use as a case study, the psychological concept called classical conditioning first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. Marketers routinely use this concept in efforts to manipulate consumer’s emotions and to persuade them purchase a product or to manipulate their thoughts at a subconscious level. Unsuspecting person inexplicably transfers emotions attached to an unconditioned stimuli to a new conditioned stimuli. Which may explain why people are just unaware of their certain attitudes towards certain products? This method is commonly seen, for example when advertisers pair their product to positive images and linkages. Drinks endorsed by celebrities or by attractive looking men and women to create a appealing image to associate the drink with , cereals enjoyed in a loving family atmosphere or pastries baked by a rosy-cheeked cartoons… accompanied by pleasant music, beautiful sceneries or posh surroundings , all are efforts to entice consumers and create the urge to spend. Even sexual imagery is used in attempts to elicit response in the marketing efforts. There are extensive links that marketers can use. Events, symbols, flags, models, and glamorous imagery. The purpose is to produce positive images about the product despite the fact that the product may be harmful for human consumption.
The technique is also used by advertisers to reverse the image of products as well. Classic example would be the advertising of cigarettes. Advertisers has been using masculinity to associate with the cigarette adds. And on the other spectrum, in a bid to capture the female smoking market. Cigarettes were made longer and thinner in the women ads to emphasize femininity.