The scuba diving initially began without any equipment it involves in the present day. In earlier times, the people had to catch their own food, so they dove deep into the water, devising ways to catch underwater creatures to eat. Snorkeling evolved here, which used a mask and a tube to breathe. In the 1770s, Doctor Freminet attempted to make a breathing apparatus that would allow for underwater breathing. He thought that his breathing device was perfectly made but, he died for a lack of oxygen while trying to use it. Then, in the 1880s Henry Fleuss created another breathing apparatus for underwater. He dove 30 feet underwater but, died from too much of oxygen. Finally, Benoit Rouguayrol and Auguste Denayrouse decided to create a functioning regulator that consists of a compressed air tank worn on the back and connected to a mouthpiece. Even if the divers cannot move freely, it was really an outline for models to come later. Technology improved, and the first SCUBA (Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) tank was formed throughout World War II. It was used by the US Navy’s frogmen and gave them the essential freedom to move about underwater without being associated above the surface. Scuba diving is a gear-intensive pursuit. The scuba diving would be impossible, and yet more necessary to increase its safety margin to the point that it can be indulged as a recreation sport. Jacques Cousteau and Emile Gagnan are accountable for making the greatest contribution to scuba diving and diving gear equipment. In 1943 they made-up the scuba tanks still used today, though with major modifications to make them lighter and more advanced. The first diving suits were used in France and England, that was made of leather and air was pumped into them from the surface with manual pumps. Once the discovery was made to use metal to make helmets, these suits were able to stand greater pressure. With air manually pumped into these helmets, divers were able to enter deeper into the ocean. In the 19th century that the study was completed to create modern scuba diving as we know it today. Paul Bert from France and John Scott Haldane from Scotland, conducted scientific research on water pressure and our bodies limits concerning safe compressed air diving. At the same time, new technologies allowed for the development of air pumps, scuba regulators and other diving gear equipment. Throughout the 20th century, inventions in diving gear equipment improved. Swim fins, masks and other scuba gear became available. In the 1950’s the public began to take interest in scuba diving. Scuba gear shops began to open up and the first wet suit was introduced. Today, scuba diving is accessible to almost anyone with only a modest investment in equipment. Anywhere you want to dive you can usually find a dive shop online to buy like in Joe Diver America. Then, in 1960 the National Association of Underwater Instructors (NASD) was formed to oversee the safety and certification requirements for scuba divers.