After the devastating world war, the Philippine history is divided mainly into three significant periods namely: the birth of the third republic, Philippines under martial law, and the present democratic time. The country’s educational system adhered to certain philosophies during these periods.
1. During the period from the proclamation of the Third Philippine Republic on July 4, 1946, under the administration of President Manuel Roxas until the pre-martial law days of the Marcos regime, the country’s educational philosophy was in accordance with the provisions of Article XIV, section 5 of the 1935 Constitution which provides that:
» all educational institution is under the supervision of and subject to regulation of the State » the government shall provide at least free primary instruction and citizenship training to adults » the educational aims are to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic consciousness, and vocational efficiency and teach the duties of citizenship » religious education is optional » Universities enjoy academic freedom » the State shall create scholarships for gifted citizens
2. However, by virtue of Proclamation No. 1081 signed on September 20, 1972 and implemented on September 21, 1972, the Philippines was put under martial law. As a result, all powers of the government and its instrumentalities were virtually put under the disposal of former president Marcos.
As far as education was concerned, Article XV, Section 8 of the 1973 Constitution provides that:
» all educational institution is under the supervision of and subject to regulation of the State » all institutions of higher learning shall enjoy academic freedom » the educational aims are to inculcate love of country, teach the duties of citizenship, and develop moral character, personal discipline, and scientific, technological, and vocational efficiency » the State shall provide free public elementary education and in areas where finances permit, maintain up to the secondary level » the State shall provide citizenship and vocational training to adult citizens and out-of-school youth » create and maintain scholarships for poor and deserving students
3. After the much-hailed EDSA People Power Revolution in 1986, one of President Aquino’s first efforts toward the restoration of democracy was the promulgation of the 1986 Constitution which provides the present philosophy of education in the Philippines as stated in Article XIV, Section 3(2) thus:
All educational institutions shall inculcate: » patriotism and nationalism » foster love for humanity and respect for human rights » appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical and cultural development of the country » teach the rights and duties of citizenship » strengthen ethical and spiritual values and develop moral character and personal discipline » encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge and provide vocational efficiency
“Education is that which discloses to the wise and disguises from the foolish their lack of understanding.”
– Ambrose Bierce