Hamstring Injury and Treatment
Effective hamstring injury treatment & hamstring stretching exercises are vital to the overall health and condition of the hamstring muscles. The hamstring muscles are very susceptible to tears, strains and other common sporting injuries.
Those athletes particularly vulnerable are competitors involved in sports which require a high degree of speed, power and agility. Sports such as Track & Field (especially the sprinting events) and other sports such as soccer, basketball, tennis and football seem to have more than their fair share of hamstring injuries.
Let’s start by having a quick look at the particular muscles which make up the hamstrings and where exactly they’re located. We’ll then move onto some common causes of hamstring injuries and finally look at some preventative measures and treatments.
The hamstring group of muscles, located at the back of the upper leg, is actually a group of three separate muscles. The top of these muscles are attached to the lower part of the pelvis and the bottom of the hamstring muscles is attached to the lower leg bone just below the knee joint. The technical or anatomical names for the three hamstring muscles are semi-membranous, semi-tedious and biceps femora’s.
The picture to the right shows the muscles located at the rear of the upper right leg. The three specific hamstring muscles can be seen on the picture, by looking for the anatomical names located half way down the right hand side.
Now that we know exactly what and where the hamstrings are, let’s take a look at some of the most common causes for hamstring injuries. By far the most common cause of hamstring injuries originates from an imbalance between the quadriceps muscles (located at the front of the upper leg) and the hamstring muscles. The quadriceps is a very large, strong group of muscles which help to extend the leg. These muscles can become so strong that they overpower the hamstrings, putting a massive amount of tension on the hamstring muscles. Combine strong quadriceps with weak hamstrings and you have a hamstring injury waiting to happen.
Other factors which contribute to hamstring injuries are a lack of flexibility and poor strength of the hamstring muscles. Also, when the hamstrings become fatigued or tired they are more susceptible to injuries.
The best preventative measures involve a consistent program of both stretching and strengthening exercises. Increased flexibility will contribute greatly to the ability of the hamstring muscles to resist strains and injury. To follow are two very effective and very safe hamstring stretches.
Warming up correctly will also contribute greatly to reducing the likelihood of a hamstring injury, and don’t just stretch before you exercise. Make sure you stretch both before and after any physical activity. Dedicate time to your entire flexibility, this will not only help you avoid injury, it will also make you a better athlete.
If you do happen to suffer from a hamstring injury, it’s important that correct first aid principles are applied immediately. The RICER regime explains the correct treatment for all muscle strain injuries. RICER stands for Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation, and then obtaining a Referral from a qualified sports doctor or physiotherapist. So, as soon as a hamstring injury occurs, rest the injured limb, apply ice to the effected area, apply a compression bandage and elevate the limb if possible. This treatment needs to continue for at least 48 to 72 hours. This is the most critical time for the injured area; correct treatment now can mean the difference between an annoying injury and a permanent, re-occurring, debilitating injury.
After the first 72 hours obtain a referral from a qualified professional and start a comprehensive rehabilitation program. This should include a great deal of strength and stretching exercises, as well as other rehabilitation activities such as massage and ultra-sound.