Plant Anatomy

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Plants have leaves, stems, and roots. The leaves of plants are their food factory. Photosynthesis is the plant’s process of making food.

Chlorophyll is a green substance that is used by the plants during photosynthesis. Chlorophyll captures energy from the sun and then that energy is used by the plants to combine water, obtained from the soil, with carbon dioxide gas, obtained from the air around them.

This makes sugar and during the process, plants release oxygen. Carbon dioxide is released during respiration when sugar is burned to nourish the plant. During transpiration, water from the roots is released into the air as water vapor.

The stems of plants are their support system. Leaves are held up to the light by the stems. Stems are also used to keep fruits and flowers attached. Plant stems can grow straight up. They can grow as a trail along the ground.

Stems can also stay underground or they can grow up along fences and trees. Stems can also be thought of as a highway for food and water. Water and minerals from the soil are sent up from the roots and through the plant’s xylem tissues in the stem to the leaves and other parts of the plant.

After food is made in the leaves, it is taken through the phloem tissues to the plant’s growing parts. Capillary action is when the water and minerals are pumped through the plant. Some stems are a site for food storage.

Roots can be thought of as the anchors of the plant. The plant is held into the ground by its roots. Roots also work as absorbers. They have tiny hairs, which bring in water and minerals from the soil around them. Roots also work as a storage system. Sugars and starches are transported to the roots and stored there. Some root food that people eat are carrots, radishes, and beets.


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