The field is concerned with the study of ultimate reality and the first principles of thinking, knowledge and truth. The term Philosophy cannot be given a precise definition that will command a general acceptance. Almost every philosopher would give his own definition of philosophy. To avoid this difficulty involved in defining philosophy some scholars may resort to tracing the etymological root meaning of the concept.
The term philosophy is derived from two Greek words namely “Philo” meaning love and “Sophia” meaning wisdom. A philosopher can therefore be said to be one that loves wisdom. But this definition is debatable due to the fact that the Greek word “Sophia” which is literally translated into English as “wisdom” had a much wider application than the modern English word; wisdom. Homer for example used “Sophia” to refer to the skill of a carpenter, while Herodotus used the verb “Philosophein” in the context in which is meant as the desire to find out. I used the word “Sophia” as the ability of every thing, and every one. For instance, I would say ‘the Sophia of love towards man is inevitable, be it good or of evil’. In a connection, it has been stated that “Philosophia” connotes the love of exerting ones curiosity or intelligence, but I would say this same word is and should be the love of exerting ones curiosity and a fixed borrowed intelligence.
Be it that, the exerting of ones curiosity or intelligence doesn’t make him a philosopher, so does the ones love of wisdom never make him a philosopher. Using the term “fixed borrowed intelligence” rather than “ones intelligence” is because every man is born with an ability of possessing intelligence, even at his or her young age, and grows acquiring his and some borrowed intelligence from genetic traits, but even with these, man is still limited to intelligence. He could get as much as he expects, but never as much as he wishes.
The tendency of man trying to know about unthinkable situations is no intelligence of its kind. The origin of God is a perfect example. But in some cases whereby man has answers to such questions is not from his intelligence, but from is ability to borrow intelligence from is creator which becomes fixed or permanent as his. Moses would never have written the book of Genesis if he was not motivated and inspired, which gave him the ability of borrowing intelligence from his creator. I see no philosophy as the love of wisdom, no matter the kind of wisdom. Every man on earth loves wisdom, not all acquires wisdom, doesn’t make them a philosopher. I would rather take the definition of K.A. Ojong who stated that “the exerting of ones curiosity or intelligence isn’t merely an aesthetic disposition, rather it is an exercise that yield knowledge which in some way is useful in the solution of problems” he ended up stating that “the concept of philosophy should be simply defined as the theoretical vision that guides human action in every field of human endeavor”. As a general definition, I do not accept the definition. I hereby define the term philosophy as not the love of wisdom, but the wisdom of love. The term love in my definition no longer refers to an enthusiasm, or a feeling, or the act of a Secadone (sex), but is referred and illustrates a person, this person is God. The solidarity of man towards the explanation of the origin of God hasn’t made much progress and this gives man not so much belief most especially philosophers, and makes man a certain extent ignorant about their creator and their God. Basically, the answering of such a question tends to be possible.
Love in a plain English could be an affection, enjoyment e.t.c, in other perspective love could be a and whatnot, but I say love is classified into differentiations, and because of the eccentricity and abstracts of some they do not have an opposite.
My first class of love is called Consanguinity or a hood. This class of love is the strong bond a family share, this class of love involves a lot of care and honesty. The term care, I defined to be a counter shading arithmetic rhythm of enthusiasm.
The next class is called the Laepi. The term Laepi was used over a thousand years ago to describe a courtship, celebration towards one and other. Laepi is definitely said to be the relationship and love a thing has towards others. This word originated from the association of symbiosis. Whereby a very close relationship exists between two different species or living organisms, making both species benefit, or one benefit and the other is unaffected or harmed. An example is also how the avatars do most of things together, and the connection between one and other is essential. Major examples are the love we share for pets and animals, the love we share to friends and brethrens. The opposite of Laepi is fear. Not all opposite of love would mean hatred.
Another class would be self being; this is the love we have for ourselves. Sometimes we tend to hate the type of life we live either due to the things we do, frustration, inferiority complex and fear. These have made lot of people commit atrocities against their self, e.g. suicide. The opposite of self being is self-hate.
The next class is said to be the most practiced, this class is called love-like. A love-like affair is absolutely different from Laepi, though they have things in common, but nevertheless, a love-like affair is also the love we have for one another, things like career, Painting, medicine, art, drawing and is part of your fun time, like watching movies, sports, play pranks, a trip, e.t.c. The love-like affair is also used for the love we have for beast of friends and people you care most about. The opposite of this is hatred.
A good class worth to be touched is a class I call Fancidom. This class is said to be a great admiration that could also lead to true love, at the same time such admiration can be mistaken to be love, this is assumed to fade away easily if not worked on. Major example of a Fancidom is a love at first sight, this type of love isn’t lost, and was very practiced during the time of old. Adam went into Fancidom immediately he arose and saw eve, some tribes prepares a marriage for two people who has never met, this people don’t start a marital life hating their selves, and they always start with a Fancidom. The opposite of this is lost. Lost is an imaginary work, which tends to have a personality added to it. When in lost, you only think about the physiognomy and sex life of a mate. You will tend to be only interested in romance or in taking the mate to bed.
Momentarily, man feels a sudden dart, that sting is heart and causes a bond between him and he or she, which he tends to admire and be of interest. This bond is set in him or her psychologically. Then we say he or she nurtures this bond as an emotion. This might have originated as a Fancidom, a love-like affair, Laepi, even from the hood. But whatsoever it originated from has gradually then eventually turned into a true love; I call this stage a kre- circle (Ken’s rapid emotion). According to astrology, this phase of love is started by a cupid (god of love), and compatible, being that a particular Zodiac sign is more or most compatible to another. A kre-circle is then defined as a lured oriented visual enthusiasm. With the word “enthusiasm” meaning a huge interest in your emotion that tends to draw you closer to whosoever this emotion favors, having care, affection and no fear. Getting to such a phase of love man might have experience the Fancidom, were lured by her physiognomy, or man might must have been lured through his or her character and speech. Basically, a visual is necessary, which increases the emotions, get him or her thinking when he or she is gone, dreaming and also increases the admiration, because in the looks beauty is found. Even a blind man, has a sharp instinct to figure out the way he or she might look, through the touches alone. The adaptation of the thoughts, vision, situation e.t.c, keeps the emotion going, this is known as the orientation. The opposite of this love isn’t hate, that’s why it is possible to have a love-hate relationship. The opposite of true love is lost. If a true love can be giving in return, a love affair can be formed, which in the process may lead to another aspect of love, this I call Secadone.
Secadone is a type of love, this love comprises of three parts. In the parts we will lost as the first phase of a Secadone. In every relationship the probability of the couple being lured to the phase of lost is sure; this could lure them to a romance which may lead to sex, if the two mates are available. While in the absence of a mate the other could find his or her self in a trace called Icapune. Icapune is the aspect of man viewing him or herself having a romance or sex (sensual erotic character) in his or her thoughts. Secadone is now all the erotic pleasure gotten in an affair.
Now going back to what love meant in my definition of philosophy; the term love isn’t just all I have explained, it is more than we can think. Love is what it is, but obviously the works and origin of an abstract is unthinkable, e.t.c, the air, a spirit. According to the law of contradiction, a thing cannot be and be at the same time. This law puts the law of identity negatively and is also restated with the law of identity as the law of excluded middle; which states that a thing either is or is not. This law of thoughts makes people agnostic or an atheist, but what is abstract is abstract as the law of identity would say, knowing well the word abstract means an existence of a thing in thought, or an idea but not having a physical reality. But the obduracy of love has successfully overcome our thoughts, our laws. It portrays a unique and broad character; and abides us to one another and is in control to every thing that happens in the universe. Love can only be the first element to have been before life, its feature of being every where, knowing every thing, doing anything; made it to be more than anything. Love might not have been seen, but doesn’t just exist in thoughts, but in reality. Man can’t say it isn’t, but have also been obstinate to say it doesn’t exist, only to the fact that it can be seen. But what is physical is physical and is also permitted to be seen by the mortals, but what isn’t, isn’t and shouldn’t be expected to be seen by a mortal until he doesn’t see him self as one. But man has incessantly restricted them selves from certain wisdom and beliefs. Yet love overcomes all odd, and nothing takes its place. I hereby come against the law of excluded middle, which states that a thing either is or isn’t. This law of thought is showing much of negativity and promotes the term impossibility. I hereby add to the law of thoughts, be it a contradictory of excluded middle would be the law of validity; which states that a thing either is, has been or is yet to be. Love hasn’t just proven itself in the lives of people of the new age, but also of the old times. Love is portrayed to be God in the bible, but this belief has so much not been emphasized. I know this, and share with the world, the greatest class of love being God.
This takes me back to my definition of philosophy, which says philosophy is the wisdom of love; the exerting of the wisdom of God, be the good and the odds. The exerting of thoughts that beat the mortal instinct of man, bringing the non-natural features makes him a philosopher.
Historically, philosophy was an opposition to religious or magical speculation arose in Greece in the 6th century BC in Miletus, an ancient Greek city in Ionia, founded about 1000 BC. In an attempt to find the single element underlying all things in a school in Miletus, ancient philosophy occurred. This discovery were pursued by the Athenian philosophers, in the Pre-Socratic period, this men are Thales, Anaximander, Xenophanes, Heraclitus, Anaximenes, Zeno, Democritus, Pythagoreans, Parmenides, Anaxagoras, Sophists, Empedocles and the Atomists. Other philosophers came up, which lead to the most important phase of ancient philosophy. This phase occurred with the teaching of Socrates, who developed the dialectical method and applied it to political and other problems. The works of his successors, Plato and Aristotle, not only shape the future of the European philosophy in most fundamental respects, but also deeply influenced Christian theology. Among later schools of classical philosophy were Epicureanism, stoicism, and Neo-Platonism. Aristotelianism was preserved in the works of medieval Islamic philosophers, such as Avicenna and Averroes, and re-entered Christian Europe in the scholasticism, the work of Descartes, with its systematic doubt and emphasis on reason, signaled the end of the medieval synthesis and the beginning of the modern period and the dominance of science.
Spinoza and Leibniz attempted to deal with problems raised by Descartes; their rationalist systems are usually contrasted with the empiricism of the English philosophers, especially Locke, Berkeley, and Hume, Kant, whose aim was to reconcile these approaches and relate the sensible and the intelligible, was one of the most significant thinkers of the 18th century and stimulated the development of German idealism in the works of Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel. Idealism was also stimulated by the writings of Rousseau, whose ideas was the major source of 19th century Romanticism and influenced the work of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche.
In England utilitarianism was developed by Bentham and J.s. Mill, dialectical materialism by Marx and Engels, and Hegelian idealism by F.H. Bradley. Pragmatism is particularly associated with the Americans William James and, later John Dewey. Philosophy in the 20th century has been characterized by a marked difference in interests and emphases between most continental philosophers and those working in English speaking countries. The writings of Bergson and Croce had an influence on a number of writers (including prominent English men of letters) early in the century. The phenomenology of Husserl (and the works of Kierkegaard) led to the existentialism of Heidegger and Sartre. In contrast to their speculative approach to many of the large issues of traditional philosophy, the principal concern of English speaking thinkers has been a critical approach that concentrates on logical analysis and the role of language- a development that may be traced in the works of Bertrand Russell, A.N Whitehead, G.E. Moore, and Wittgenstein, the logical positivists (the Vienna circle), and in the current school of “ordinary language” philosophy centered at oxford. Indian and other eastern types of philosophical thoughts are closely bound to the religious or cultural framework in which they developed (e.g. Taoism, Vedanta, and Zen Buddhism).
The main theoretical branches of modern western philosophy are epistemology, ethics, and metaphysics; logic and aesthetics are also traditionally included. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy which deals with the theories of knowledge. The term epistemology is derived from the Greek word “episteme”, meaning knowledge.
Ethics is the branch of philosophy that has the morality of human actions as the object of its study. Ethics is classified into three main areas; namely Normative ethics, which is the prominent division of ethics since the time of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Normative ethics is concerned with the norms and standards or principles of human behavior. Meta-ethics is another which inquires into meaning as well as the inter-relation of the meaning of ethical terms. Meta ethics attempt to clarify the meaning as well as the implications of such ethical terms in ethical propositions and judgments; in the determination of whether or not a particular human action is good or bad.
Descriptive ethics is the last, which examines moral views that are actually held by various people or societies. The aim of the study is to establish the fact as to whether such ethical views are universally held. The main object of descriptive ethics, therefore, is the discovery ethics helps to reveal the different expression of, and opinions about morality.
Meta physics- the term Meta physics simply means that which comes after physics. It is the title which an ancient editor by name Andronicus gave to a collection of Aristotle had called first philosophy came after his other works covering the biological and physical sciences, the editor labeled it “meta-physics”.
Logic as a branch of philosophy is a science which studies forms of thinking such as judgments inferences, concepts and proofs in terms of their logical structure. The central aim of logic is valid reasoning.
Aesthetics is the branch of philosophy that is also called the philosophy of art. It is concerned with the creation and experience of art, and the analysis and solution of related problems.
Tare-out IV. P. Kennedy.