CO2 Acquittal from Global Warming
Carbon dioxide, we are told by the Anthropogenic Global Warming science consensus cable, traps heat that has been re-irradiated by the earth after absorbing the high energy solar light radiation, and thus excessively warms the land, the oceans and is melting the polar ice caps along with the glaciers. While this seems to be the case at first glance, when one actually analyzes the physics of it, that claim must be false.
Some Math Realities
Air Density = 1.21×10^-3 grams /Liter@65F, SpecificHeatCapacity = 1.005 j / g-Centigrade, 1 joule=
2.78×10^-4 watt hour
1.21×10^-3 g/L × 1.005 j / g- C× 2.78×10^-4 j to wh = CP (heat capacity dry air)- 3.38×10^-7 wh/ L
H2O Density = 0.998 g / L@65F ×SHC = 4.18 j / g-C@65F× (j to wh) = CP– H2O = 1.16×10^-3 wh/ L
116 H2O ÷ 3.38×10^-4 Air = 3,430 times more liters
However, if the air has water vapor then the heat capacity changes:
The SHC of water vapor = 2.0 j / g-C×D= 804×10^-3 g / L × (j to wh) = CP– 4.47×10^-7 wh / L
116 ÷ (3.38×10^-4 + 4.47×10^-4) = 1,480 times or 43% less air needed.
First of all, Green House Gases impede heat outflux they don’t trap it. The oceans have the greatest effect on the temperature of the planet since they constitute more then 70% of the earth’s surface. The Gulf Steam waters help keep the English and East coasts weather balmy while the California Current cools the Western coasts and causes the San Francisco fog.
The heat capacity of the ocean is enormous compared to the atmosphere.
Volume of all oceans on earth: 1,347 × 109 cubic (x^3) km = 1.347×10^15 L (1 km^3 = 1×10^6 L)
Volume of Earth’s atmosphere: 51 × 109 km^3 = 51×10^15 L
If you are pulling your hair out over the math remember, math is the proof of all physical science. You can say that the sun revolves around the Earth because it appears so, but you must have mathematical proof to support the hypothesis and it must be repeatable. You also must have valid data. Both are really lacking in the AGW community. To say that the sun revolves around the Earth is pseudo science.
On a volume / volume basis, the ratio of heat capacities of ocean water to dry air is about 3,430 to 1. This means that to heat 1 liter of water by 1C it would take 3,430 liters of dry air that was 2C hotter, or 1 liter of dry air that was about 3,430C hotter! If you ran a cold bath and then tried to heat it by putting a dozen heaters in the room, you would probably set the bathroom on fire before the water would ever get even warm. The oceans, contain a colossal 1.327 thousand- trillion (1.347 × 10^15) liters of water! To heat them directly by 1C would take 1.563 trillion (1.563×10^12) wh of energy.
In 2008, total worldwide energy consumption was 1.317 × 10^17 wh with 80 to 90% derived from the combustion of fossil fuels. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_resources_and_consumption In comparison the yearly incoming solar energy that reaches the earth is approximately- 1.01×10^21 wh, 70% of that is 7.05×10^20 wh to heat the oceans. Keep in mind these are approximations and the actual amounts can vary some, but not significantly.
If the oceans were to be heated 1C by greenhouse warming of the atmosphere, how hot would the air have to get? Well, there is 262.2 times more ocean then air mass. So- it would be ~9.0×10^5C (3,430 L× 262.2). However, that would be compromised as air sits on top of water, so even if the air warmed the water surface, the warm water would tend to sit on top of the cold water. This results in an enormous thermal lag.
For the ocean to be only slightly warmer, the land would have to be substantially warmer, and the air- much, much warmer to create the temperature gradient that would allow the efficient transfer of heat from the air to the surface water and deeper. Another factor is that moist air is lighter than dry air, and so it rises to form clouds that tend to cool the area. This is part of the moderating effect of water that the climate computer programs can’t really emulate.
Where does the Heat Come From?
So what heats the oceans?… the sun of course since water is a very good conductor of solar radiative energy and heat. The earth revolves around its tilted axis, and this gives us our seasons. The direct result of this is that in summer it is hot, and in winter it is cold. In winter the Arctic sea freezes over, and in summer it melts substantially. It’s warm ocean water that does it, not air temperatures. In summer the water is warmer and in winter it is cooler (ask any surfer). The sun’s influence is direct, obvious, and instantaneous.
Water absorbs a significant amount of energy from the Sun in the near infrared band of 0.78μm and beyond, and the ultra violet band of 0.35μm and higher. It’s transparent to light around the blue band.
Look at a history of sunspot activity and you will see that the activity mostly coincides with past warming periods. CO2, the main GHG that AGWers claim is causing the present warming, is actually just a trace gas in the atmosphere of only 0.00385%, and of that only 5% is from human activities. Probably a large portion of that is from agriculture. A large portion of the CO2 emissions comes from ocean outgassing due to it’s heating, just look up gas solubility of water in a science book.
It’s complicated by PDO and ADO, volcanoes, thermohaline circulation, orbital variations and jet stream shifts. In addition, there are still unknowns about variations of the Suns irradiance concerning ultraviolet and x-rays with the Earth’s magnetic field and atmosphere. Conversely, there is an atmospheric window between approximately 800 and 1400 ηm, in the near-infrared spectrum, where CO2 and H2O absorption is weak. That allows most of the thermal radiation to be radiated out to space, keeping the Earth’s atmosphere from going into thermal runaway. So you don’t have to worry about green house thermal runaway after all.
The global warming shoe the AGW promoters have crafted doesn’t fit the climate foot. To claim that CO2 is causing the global warming is like saying clouds create rain. CO2’s forcing is dependent on how much solar radiation is coming in. It’s like, how hot can a house be heated? Well up to a certain point, adding insulation will determine that, but the overriding factor is the BTU output of the heater. The thermal mass of the structure will also determine that, which is analogist to the oceans. Go to these sites for further reference: