What is special about this cat? Nothing really, other than that she is cool looking. But, how did I know the cat is female? Well typically all calico cats are female. A calico is a cat who is white, black, and orange. She may also be white, gray, and peach (this would be referred to as a dilute calico). The same is true about Tortoiseshell cats, which are black and orange, or gray and peach. A tortoiseshell calico with a tabby pattern is usually referred to as a Torbi, or Torbi with white. These are all generally female. A male cat of either coloration would is extremely rare, and often sterile.
Photo Source (http://www.flickr.com/photos/trishhamme/3618337858/)
A very striking calico cat, she could be called a Torbi with white, and if you look you can see an M on her forehead.
Now this is a normal house cat. He is here to demonstrate what often happens when you photograph a cat. Note his pupils in his eyes have turned yellow. This is a common trait in nocturnal animals, and is called Eyeshine. People can use this affect to take spooky cat pictures.
Photo Source (http://www.flickr.com/photos/johngiez-/4258239263/)
Known as Heterochromia, this cat has two different colored eyes. This can be genetic or the result of an injury. What is interesting is that this cat is white. It is not uncommon for blue eyed, white cats, to be deaf. In the case of cats with one blue eye, sometimes they are deaf in one ear.
Photo Source (http://www.flickr.com/photos/fensterbme/149766388/)
Cats are obligate carnivores. What this means is they are true and complete carnivores, unlike dogs who often benefit from some fruit and vegetable matter in their diet. Cats can eat other food but will not thrive on a totally vegetarian diet. Many low quality pet foods cheat cat owners by using corn as a primary filler. This forces the cat to eat more food. Thus the owner not only has more poop to clean up but is buying more food than if they fed one high in meat content.
Photo Source http://www.flickr.com/photos/rainerebert/3206226003/
Oh my, what big feet you have. This is a Polydactyl Cat, if you are unfamiliar with this term, one glance at the cat should tell you what it means. The cat has extra toes. This can occur on one or more of the cats paws, and is often considered to be good luck.
Photo Source (http://www.flickr.com/photos/evapro/540004427/)
Curly or wavy fur occurs rarely in cats but when it does people often try and establish a breed around it. This is a genetic mutation known as rexing in which the hair follicles are oval shape rather than round, and as a result they tend to curl.
Photo Source http://www.flickr.com/photos/pjlewis/46136343/
Cats can be born without a tail or with a tail shorter than usual. Cats can be born like this, or may also lose a portion of their tail if it gets caught in a door or from frost bite. The Manx breed is especially known for having shorter tails or none at all. Since this does occur in other cats, it does not mean the cat is a manx. Typically the mutation also causes the pet some difficulty going to the bathroom and some may not feel their bowels correctly.