There are some basic rules or formulas connected with an art, but these are primarily guides to self-expressions. Leadership is an art, and like other arts, requires discipline, good techniques and self-expression. Techniques used successfully by some, are perhaps usable by others. However, an individual learning the art must first convert knowledge to techniques, and then perhaps blend them with personal characteristics that lead to self-expression.
Perfection in leadership, as in any art is never achieved. There is always room for improvement. Techniques of leading must changes with changing times, with variance in customs, and with the differences in the ideals of the society of our day. Too, applied in research in psychology, sociology, and related fields render some of the previous accepted techniques as invalid and in need of change. This then, means that leadership is not necessarily measured in terms of what a person does, but rather in terms of the effects of what he does. Leadership actions must be developed which fit individual and group personalities and bring effective results when used by an individual in a particular manner.
This is not intended to indicate that knowledge of leadership patterns is not important. Quite the contrary, for the greater the knowledge of the leader, the more probable are his chances of selecting and developing a pattern which will mean success for him. Knowledge is valuable. Techniques are valuable. Patterns are valuable. However, in the future analysis, the results achieved determine the success or failure of an individual placed in a position requiring leadership.