Glycation is a reaction between a sugar and protein. It generates compounds (AGEs and glycated proteins) that can not be eliminated by our cells. These glycated proteins accumulate with age. They gradually disrupt the functioning of our cells and cause mutations in their DNA.
Glycation contributes to many diseases: atherosclerosis, renal failure, Alzheimer’s disease, cataracts, complications of diabetes. Food can fight against glycation of two ways:
control our blood sugar control: do not eat too many carbohydrates, particularly sugars called “fast” (which rose rapidly in the blood). In practice, avoid desserts, ice cream, soft drinks. Do not eat too much grain (bread, pasta …), corn starch, potato, rice (all processed carbohydrates in the body). Consume preferably the healthiest sources of carbohydrates are fruits.
reduce the consumption of brown (protein heated over 180 ° in the presence of carbohydrates) or burned. For example, cooking with steam or heat rather than high temperature (frying pan, fry, grill …).
Glycobiology (or glycomics) is the study of organizations consisting of 8 sugars Simple sugars essential (glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, fucose, sialic acid). It is not common sugar that we know (sucrose) which provides only calories.
Glycobiology is a very recent science. In February 2003, the annual technology assessment done by the prestigious MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) quoted glycomics as one of 10 emerging technologies that would change the world tomorrow. Four Nobel Prizes have been awarded in the last 8 years for research in glycomics.
In recent years, research has shown that these sugars do not just play in our organization the role of energy storage. Much of the walls of our cells consists not only of proteins but also sugars and glycoproteins (sugars associated with proteins). We know now that they are essential to the functioning of the body, especially the communication between cells.
These essential sugars are manufactured by our bodies from 8 simple sugars essential: glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, fucose, sialic acid. But only glucose and galactose are present so abundant in our food. The combinations of these sugars them are very complex, even more than the combination of amino acids in proteins (which is linear). Because of the complexity of glycomics is a science so recent.
Scientists thought until recently that the 6 essential sugars infrequent in our diet could be easily produced by our bodies from glucose and galactose, which we consume in large quantity. We know now that this synthesis in the body is slow, and that the agency “prefers” to have these essential sugars directly into food. Therefore often referred to these 8 essential sugars “glyconutriments.
The likely benefits provided by these essential sugars are campaigning for a diet by providing sufficient quantities (or failing to supplementation):
increased mental performance.
improving muscle mass, decrease body fat, increase physical strength.
regulation of blood pressure.
improving bone density.
helps to fight against certain mental disturbances: depression, tourette, dementia …
reduction of chronic and degenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders (Parkinson’s, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia), or related to the immune response (asthma, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, heart problems, diabetes) and infectious diseases.
normalization of glucose tolerance in the blood, optimizing the ratio cholesterol / HDL (ratio between “good” and “bad” cholesterol).
assistance in the fight against certain cancers.
help to correct certain genetic disorders (trisomy 21, cystic fibrosis).