Adobe construction techniques

Adobe 
It is a brick made from clay that has, traditionally, about 25 x 35 x 10 cms, with an average weight of about 14 kilos. The ideal mix contains 20% clay and 80% sand. These materials, mixed with water, acquire a form that allows fluid onto wooden forms with the dimensions above. When the water evaporates, the adobe brick is then able to sustain itself. That’s when the form is removed, completing drying in the sun free areas available for this purpose known as “drying patios. After several days, to accelerate the drying, the bricks are moved by relying on one of its sides. Within a few days are ready to be stacked. The cure takes about 30 days. By that time the brick is already as strong as cement. 
The behavior of the mud is bound to the conditions and constitution of the soil from which. A clay soil will require over the incorporation of a greater proportion of other ingredients to balance their greater ability to contraction-expansion which can lead to cracks and warping. The best way to know the behavior of the soil is initially building a small sample of adobes and observe their behavior, then incorporated, if necessary, corrective case. 
Traditionally, the mud, they do not require the use of fuel for its development represents a substantial savings estimated at 40% relative to the cost of clay brick that requires the use of ovens for baking. As economic disadvantage from the standpoint of commercial construction is labor-intensive and manual labor, one of the reasons that commercial use has led to high levels where there are buying today with wonderful buildings this technology … 
A straw is commonly considered as part of the adobe brick. This is not true and the brick of the contemporary non-use. Its use was thought important to give rigidity to the adobe, or avoiding cracks on drying. The truth is that if the proportion of clay and sand is correct, it is not needed. If Adobe were to split because it is very dry clay. ” 
Already in construction, adobe blocks stick to each other using mud mortar. 

“Because of its ease, economy and independence from the commercial use adobe became, throughout the world, the material of the poor”, whose families were involved in the manufacture of the mixture using feet, and turning it into wooden forms to make bricks. ” 

Although Adobe does not traditionally subjected to the action of fire, there are now commercially produced adobes that do use it. In this case, the “bricks” and produced, while maintaining its original dimensions, show changes in relation to the traditional in terms of texture, color and strength. Also, some versions of Adobe provide stabilization (as opposed to its disintegration) added to the dosage of cement, asphalt and / or bituminous materials. But this alters the appearance and working of the original material. 
One disadvantage of the non-baked adobe is its lack of stability as a subject, given that its tightening is not permanent as it occurs in baked brick, and this can lead to changes in shortening and widening in its proportions to vary the proportion of its contents water. Their resistance varies with the amount of water that holds a greater amount of water contained lower load capacity. 
Adobe does not adhere permanently to metal, wood or stone because of their greater variability in behavior of expansion-contraction. However, many works are found together, but operate separately. 

The traditional mud mortar has been replaced today in the case of adobe blocks establizados by mortar of lime and cement, but cement mortars, being stronger than the non-stabilized adobe and present different behavior of expansion / contraction can contribute to the deterioration of the adobe material used. 
When the mud is used as a wall load substantially increase its sections and buildings rarely exceed two stories in height. 
Adobe is not a good thermal insulator. And has the capacity to absorb heat during considerable periods of time. In the countries of sudden change in temperature between day and night, provides an average temperature extremes that it is beneficial to the person hosting. 
Using two or three operators in the use of this technology can reach a daily production of between 300 and 500 bricks of adobe. 

Adobe semi-stabilized 
Is classified as a brick resistant to moisture due to the addition to its usual 3% to 5% of its weight as a stabilizing agent or waterproofing agent. This stabilizer has great importance in protecting the adobe block during the curing process. The asphalt emulsion is the main stabilizer because of its ease of use and low cost but instead add it to 5 to 10% of Portland cement produces the same result. 
The stabilizing agent should be incorporated into the raw material of adobe before emptying into the molds. 

Adobe stabilized 
A fully stabilized adobe should limit the proportion of water equivalent to 4% by weight, requiring the addition of an asphalt emulsion which is between 6 and 12% of its total weight. Exterior walls built with adobe and stabilized (and mortar) do not warrant additional protection and can be left exposed, without requiring any frieze. In fact, the insistence on walls coated with some form of frieze waterproofed substantially increases the cost of the work. 
Statistics in the construction industry in adobe in New Mexico in 1994 indicate that only 1% of production was geared to adobe adobe completely stabilized. 

Costs associated 
While the prospective owner of a home can be made of mud brick of its own, the cost (in USA) to build a house of 200 m2 is between $ 2,000 and $ 3,000 dollars. The difference in cost depends on your location and whether you buy or traditional bricks stabilized. 

Compressed B-earth, rammed or pressed ( “Rammer earth”). Tapia. 
This traditional technology that has accompanied the Adobe since the dawn of civilization, is distinguished from that, during its construction in the fact that its mass is subjected to a pressure or pressure which reduces the humidity level in the mixture and as well as the possibility of further penetration of the same on the walls of the building erected. Furthermore where the mud is in the form of blocks or “bricks” the land is used preferentially compressed in building wall panels. The technology was used compressed earth works so gigantic and enduring as the Great Wall of China. 
In Spain it is known and used for centuries technology rammed earth wall, under the name. This variant, which incorporates a mixture of lime mud, opera based on the use of modular wooden molds called “tapiales” that build walls with pieces of compressed material (previously adjusted to the width you want) and then angled edges overlap to achieve their ultimate union. Traditionally there are two types of wall: the wall that incorporates real clay mixed with lime and common wall that operates only on clay. The raw material used in the construction of wall and, in general, all building systems that make use of land must be carefully sifted to remove impurities from the subject plant, the rot can cause cavities and strain into the product finish. Also, shingles should be removed when its size affects the consistency of the paste material to be produced. 
In recent years, updating the technology of rammed earth in terms of its engineering and mechanization, incorporating modern techniques and machinery to its construction process, has contributed mightily to his reinstatement in the competitive world of building technology . Bearers in the recovery of this technology include, as in mud, the countries of Australia and New Zealand. 

Characteristics of the constructive procedure 
The homes of pressed earth walls are commonly much thicker than required by other technologies can reach 90 cms. The construction of these walls is formaletas through the use of iron or wood placed on foundations of stone or concrete and applied gradually over each other, layers of wet material from 15 to 20 cms. thick. Hydraulic Tampers then apply that compress each layer by reducing the amount of moisture in a 25 to 30%. Once the layers of clay tamped reach the desired height, the molds are removed and allowed to dry on the wall. Usually added to the mix portland cement as a stabilizer. 
Because of their greater coherence and consistency rammed earth technology covers a broader spectrum of adobe climate that you should avoid harsh conditions of heavy rain and frequent. 

Benefits of the earth pressed 
Pressed earth has a very high thermal mass (ie, ability to store heat). In countries with cold climate, this is an invaluable resource in the design of passive solar energy systems. During winter, the wall acts as an accumulator of heat energy to the sun’s rays, which then radiates to the interior of the building to offset the increase in cold ambient temperature and acting as a regulatory climate in the building. During the summer, the designer should provide adequate sun protection on the walls (extending quiebrasoles and other resources to prevent excessive overheating of the walls of the building). There is a marked fall in night temperatures in relation to the day the walls “breathe” out the excess heat accumulated during the day before it has managed to penetrate the interior of the building. 
A proper handling of the ventilation of the spaces of the home can stay cool during the daytime. 
Other benefits include: land use and related resources to the environment, low maintenance, strength and sense of stability and permanence of the resulting built form; healthy internal savings and economies in the governance system of air conditioning building, adequate climate protection, non-combustible walls and protection against the ingress of insects inside. 

Finishing operations 
The wall of rammed earth, once dried, can be coated with a frieze exterior (stucco) and interior plaster (plaster), which can be colored or left natural to reduce costs. And yet this coating can be deferred or eliminated. 
The rammed earth walls built to continue tightening in the first year of its construction. 

Guidance and control costs 
The cost of a home-based rammed earth are generally comparable to those of other types of buildings, where the total cost of construction depends heavily on the quality of finish and level of detail required by the building owner. Wall systems usually comprise between 10 and 20% of the cost of the work. Away the skill and experience of the designer to make better and more efficient use of the building system, a careful selection of materials for floors and roofs, plumbing and electricity and other facilities can be important factors in controlling construction costs. 

Blocks using rammed earth technology CINVA-RAM 
It is possible to produce blocks of land apisionada, instead of walls and walls, using the venerable simple and practical technology of machine-RAM CINVA originated in Chile and Colombia during the fifties. 
This machine, laptop, which operates without requiring any electrical power supply and is operated by a human operator has expanded the world, to allow domestic production, given the simplicity of their manufacture. 

To operate a computer-RAM CINVA must first maneuver the metal frame that surrounds so as to open the top of the box and emptied it into the soil properly prepared. Once done, close the lid again and is inclined to force the long metal bar that has to produce an effect of manual pressure on the material contained in the box. 
Once the material has been properly compacted again operated to release the metal lid of the box and allow the emergence of the bloc will emerge in part out of the box. From there you can easily be removed for drying and accumulated in cells … 
The use of computer-RAM CINVA hard physical effort involved, but their reward is the availability and independence of a cheap form of construction and effective to produce compressed earth blocks and an invaluable resource to support self-help housing for very low cost. 

C-EL Bahareque, Bajareque or Pajareque 
Technology bahareque (bajareque or pajareque as it is called elsewhere) has for centuries been one of the most popular forms of traditional construction of low cost in the area of the Caribbean (there is also its use in certain regions of Spain where its application constructive results in the production of “barracks”). 
In principle, the adobe is a construction technology consists of a lattice of reeds on which to manually spread a thick layer of mud. Housing generally well developed relies on the complementary use Horcones and palm woven to provide a safe environment and climate in the most deprived. The technology used consistently over time, gradually fell into disuse during the second half of the twentieth century, displaced by a number of important factors, among which are: 

a) The health campaigns aimed at combating unhealthy living conditions resulting from deterioration of the housing interior that makes the walls can become a haven for rodents and unwanted insects, including the terrible scourge of the chip. Also contributing to this picture of the unhealthy use of untreated ground floors, which do not necessarily have to do with the system but that traditionally accompany it. 
b) Inseguridad protection against theft housing for vulnerable homeless palm. 
c) Risk of fire for the same reason. 
d) Uncertainty as refuge from high winds, storms and floods. 
e) And so, perhaps it is the decisive factor: easy access to the solution of zinc foil as quick and easy to erect, often comes free. This town has the usual unsightly landscape deployments lawless “ironmonger” that have destroyed the balance and smooth plastic and environmental and authentic that provided the original adobe buildings along the coasts of tropical and other regions of harsh climates. 

As technology is bahareque has had to bear the sins of others which are not directly attributable. 
One last point to stress is the adverse unattractive by a technology-intensive work to professional construction companies. 
Fortunately, at the edge of 2000, the adobe, like many other technologies seem to mud, in the light of technological advances and health of the time to review and update its reduction and recovery defects of its virtues. 

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