In Spain, a country mostly dry in most villages the houses were built of adobe, which is why we associate Adobe to build low-quality, reliable country underdeveloped. But now consider again the adobe as a building material to be taken into account when choosing how to build a villa.
Adobe is a mixture of wet clay, sand and straw, material abundance and low prices anywhere. But the reason for their choice as a building material, is not only price, but because it brings together benefits ranging from aesthetic considerations, Adobe enables smooth and rounded shapes of pleasant aspect, ecological low-power consumption required by this type of construction, and comfort, as the adobe house is much cooler in summer and warmer in winter than the brick, so you almost do not require use of energy in air conditioning.
An additional advantage of adobe, which is easy to modify the building once, breaking down a wall or extend the house with a new unit, it causes fewer problems than the usual construction, as the mud can be recycled in situ in the walls of the new work and the rest is transformed into soil that is incorporated into the soil, leaving a minimum of debris. Furthermore there is no undue difficulty to insert in the Las Rozas existing walls to install new water services and electricity, so the maintenance and introduction of new networks of electricity, water or communications, are resolved in this type of construction is more easily and less spending.
While buildings are multi-story adobe, Adobe, for its weight is not, in principle, suitable material for construction in height, but very useful for houses with two floors above ground, such as housing type chalets . Neither this material should be used in areas that have risk of earthquakes, or in areas of very wet weather, both in terms of abundant rainfall, as characterized by having a site on a regular basis, a high humidity ..
A third reason for rejecting the construction of adobe, is on the volume and space occupied by its thick walls, which makes them not suitable for building plots in the planning limits the volume or by its high price, requiring at with a maximum utilization of available land.
The great enemy of adobe is moisture, so traditionally the basis of the external walls of buildings were made of adobe with stone blocks to a height of approximately 40 cm., So that the walls were isolated from mud moisture that rises by capillary action of soil and puddles that may form in the event of heavy rains. The stone can be replaced fully by a shuttering of concrete, waterproofed on top with a continuous layer of asphalt to serve as a barrier to moisture.
The openings of doors and windows, if you do not want them in form of an arc should be strengthened with “Vehicle” or planks of wood with sufficient thickness to support the load above the wall, this solution also is accompanied by the construction of a brick arch sausage in the mud, whose mission is to derive the weight of the wall to the side, the wage gap from the weight.
There are two ways of building with adobe, the tapial “, or as with adobe. The tapial is the wooden one that was filling with mud and pebbles that are not compact as it is full, so the mud evenly fill the forms and is well packed, working in a similar way as working with concrete.
The adobe brick is made of mud, is used to build a mold of a similar scale of wood, in which each “step” up the space of a mud, more or less like a brick about 10 cm. thick. Immediately fill the mold, rises and moves to a new place to make another series, so that newly manufactured adobes drying air on all four sides. When fully dried adobes are off the ground, and are used as bricks, mortar and using the same clay from which they are made, so that the entire wall is made of adobe. Before the dry wall all you can give a plaster of clay, so that the wall is completely smooth.
The beams of the roof must support pillars located on the mud so that the pressure that supports the wall is more evenly distributed surface, these beams and uprights, which were traditionally made of wood, can be of any material such as joists, prefabricated or iron because the clay behaves well with other materials, can also be mixed with the adobe brick walls, with no major problems.