Brief Argentina History

Have you ever wondered if what you know about Argentina is accurate? Consider the following paragraphs and compare what you know to the latest info on Argentina. 

The best time to learn about Argentina is before you’re in the thick of things. Wise readers will keep reading to earn some valuable Argentina experience while it’s still free. 

The first settlers of the current Argentine territory date back to 11,000 years BC (findings Piedra Museo, Santa Cruz Province). Among indigenous peoples, hunters and gatherers lived in Patagonia, the Pampas and Chaco, and farmers were installed in the Northwest, Cuyo, Sierras de Cordoba and later in Mesopotamia. Tastil in the north was the largest pre-Columbian city located in the current Argentine territory with a population of 3,000. 

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the Inca Empire conquered part of the current provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Catamarca, Tucumán (west end), La Rioja, San Juan, Mendoza Northwest and possibly the north of Santiago del Estero, incorporating their Collasuyo territories to which was the southern Tahuantinsuyo or regions of the Inca Empire. 

In 1780 there was a great Indian uprising with its epicenter in Cusco led by the Inca Tupac Amaru II, which spanned from the current Argentine territory until the present territory of Colombia. The southern half of the present territory of Argentina (Patagonia, apart from some coastal areas and parts of the pampas) remained under the control of different peoples: mainly Tehuelche and the Mapuche in Patagonia and the Pampas plains ranqueles until the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Also, the territories of the Chaco region, were not colonized by Europeans, but they were inhabited by indigenous peoples such as tuffs, Mocovi, Pilaga and Wichis until the early twentieth century. 

Since 1800 

In 1806 a British expedition occupied the city of Buenos Aires, which is remembered as the first of the British Invasions. 

In 1810, the people of Buenos Aires started the May Revolution, which overthrew and expelled the viceroy, choosing as his replacement a governing board composed mostly of criollos, which led to the War of Independence against Spain (1810-1824) . On July 9, 1816, in the city of Tucuman, a congress of deputies from the provinces of northwestern and central-west and from Buenos Aires, with some Members of the High exiles proclaimed Peru’s independence from the United Provinces in South America. 

The first decades as an independent country were tumultuous. The struggles between federal and unitary led Argentina to a long series of bloody civil wars between factions and provinces (1820-1861) and a war with the Empire of Brazil (1825-1828). Respect of the territory, in 1826 the province of Tarija in Bolivia and was incorporated as a result of the Preliminary Peace Convention which sought to end the war with Brazil, in 1828 the Banda Oriental was declared independent by taking the name of Republic of uruguay. 

1853 Rosas was defeated at the Battle of Caseros the Army Grande, a partnership between the provinces of Entre Rios and Corrientes, the colored troops of Uruguay (faction opposed to the nationals of Uruguay, the Uruguayan national were allies of Rosas, with Manuel Oribe a red head and was supported by Brazil), alliance unit, Colorado, was headed by the Brazilian federal even become antiretroviral Justo José de Urquiza, governor of Entre Rios who assumed the presidency pending the adoption of a Constitution in the year 1853, which adopted a federal system dimmed. The Constitution was rejected by the province of Buenos Aires that left the then called Confederation Argentina, due to which it had to establish their capital in the city of Paraná. In 1859, the Confederation defeated Buenos Aires at the Battle of Cepeda but without achieving the integration of Buenos Aires. In the battle of Pavón (1861), the provinces were defeated by Confederate troops under the command of porteñas Bartolomé Miter after which ended the existence of two separate states and Miter assumed the presidency of the unified nation. 

Between 1878 and 1884, was called Conquest of the Desert, which was a war against the Mapuche and other indigenous peoples to annex territory to the Argentine Pampean and Patagonian territories they inhabit. 

On September 6, 1930 was the first in a series of coups d’etat that brought to power by the military to establish a de facto government. Since that decade, the country launched a process of import substitution which has developed a broad industrial sector. In 1946 he was elected president Juan Domingo Peron, who with his charismatic wife, Eva Perón, led a political movement, or Justicialists Peronism, which put the emphasis on social justice, women’s suffrage established in 1947 to recognize the political rights of women, with a broad membership of the population since then. In 1955 Peron was overthrown by a military coup, which took the name of revolution and outlawed Libertadora to Peronism. 

In 1973, Peronism was legalized again and won the presidential election. Following the resignation of Hector Jose Campora, Juan Domingo Perón assumed the presidency for the third time, but died less than a year later. The vice president and succeeded by his third wife, María Estela Martínez de Perón, whose government was characterized by a rapid deterioration of the domestic product of the oil crisis of 1973 and the widespread political violence. 

The military coup 

On March 24, 1976 was a new military coup that began calling itself the National Reorganization Process, during which we developed a systematic process of disappearance and torture of people-the so-called dirty war, a product which is estimated there were about 30,000 disappeared. During this government was the first country in the World Cup 1978 in Argentina was the team champion. That year there was a serious crisis with Chile by the limits in the area of the Beagle Channel (Conflict of the Beagle), which led both countries to the brink of war. In 1982, there was the Falklands War against Britain, whose defeat led to the collapse of the regime and call for general elections. 

Democracy was restored on December 10, 1983. The new president Raúl Alfonsín (the UCR) took steps to investigate crimes against humanity that occurred under the dictatorship, established civilian control of the armed forces and consolidated democratic institutions. In the trial of members of the Boards the first three military juntas were prosecuted and some were convicted. After the presidential elections of 1989 and the governance of the country affected by a hyperinflationary Alfonsin was forced to resign in order to advance the delivery of command. 

The president Carlos Menem (PJ) enacted the Convertibility Law of 1991 in Southern halted inflation, and adopted a neoliberal economic policy, backed by a wave of privatization, reduction of tariffs on imported products and market deregulation. These measures helped to significantly increase investment, exports and growth with stable prices, but also opened a process of deindustrialization, made the economy more vulnerable to international crises, and increased unemployment, poverty and job insecurity. 

In December 1999 he became president Fernando de la Rúa (UCR). In 2001, the massive flight of capital, the government ordered the freezing of bank deposits-the-pen, which culminated in a general social crisis that led to the resignation of the president on December 20, 2001. 

In two weeks several presidents that followed culminated on January 2, 2002 with the election by the Legislature of Eduardo Duhalde (PJ) as provisional president. Argentina foreign debt went into receivership and the government devalued the peso ending the convertibility law. 

By a substantial devaluation of local currency, the country began to implement a new policy of industrialization by import substitution, increased exports and fiscal surplus. By late 2002 the economy began to stabilize. 

In 2003 he was elected president Néstor Kirchner (PJ) with a mandate until 2007. During his presidency a few enterprises were nationalized and privatized a significant increase of the GDP with a fall in unemployment, which is based in part on job creation genuine dragged by reviving the agricultural sector, agribusiness and industrial and construction, and phasing out subsidies and social programs created in 2002. 

Of course, it’s impossible to put everything about Argentina into just one article. But you can’t deny that you’ve just added to your understanding about Argentina, and that’s time well spent.

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