1.Go to your desktop.
2.Create a shortcut.
3.Put taskkill.exe /f /fi “status eq not responding” in the target box!4.After that an icon should appear in your Desktop!5.Then you can change your shortcut’s icon just as you do with other shortcuts!6.Further instructions for changing your desktop icons!7.a)Go to your desktop! b)Choose a random shortcut.For ex.-My computer c)Click with Mouse 2 on the Shortcut! d)After that a windows will pop up! e)Click Change Icon button,on the shortcut tab! f)Select a random icon as you desire. g)After these steps you are ready to Kill the NOT RESPONDING PROGRAMS.Now a little information about the Windows Operating System!—————————————————————————————————————————–Microsoft Windows is a series of software operating systems and graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in November 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world’s personal computer market, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced previously. At the 2004 IDC Directions conference, it was stated that Windows had approximately 90% of the client operating system market. The most recent client version of Windows is Windows Vista; the most recent server version is Windows Server 2008. Vista’s successor, Windows 7 (currently a release candidate), is scheduled to be released on October 22, 2009.
See also: List of Microsoft Windows versions
The term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are generally categorized as follows:
Main articles: Windows 1.0, Windows 2.0, and Windows 2.1x
The history of Windows dates back to September 1981, when the project named “Interface Manager” was started. It was announced in November 1983 (after the Apple Lisa, but before the Macintosh) under the name “Windows”, but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985. The shell of Windows 1.0 was a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Other supplied programs are Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal, and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows, due to Apple Computer owning this feature. Instead all windows are tiled. Only dialog boxes can appear over other windows.
Windows 2.0 was released in October 1987 and featured several improvements to the user interface and memory management. Windows 2.0 allowed application windows to overlap each other and also introduced more sophisticated keyboard-shortcuts. It could also make use of expanded memory.
Windows 2.1 was released in two different flavors: Windows/386 employed the 386 virtual 8086 mode to multitask several DOS programs, and the paged memory model to emulate expanded memory using available extended memory. Windows/286 (which, despite its name, would run on the 8086) still ran in real mode, but could make use of the high memory area.
The early versions of Windows were often thought of as simply graphical user interfaces, mostly because they ran on top of MS-DOS and used it for file system services. However, even the earliest 16-bit Windows versions already assumed many typical operating system functions; notably, having their own executable file format and providing their own device drivers (timer, graphics, printer, mouse, keyboard and sound) for applications. Unlike MS-DOS, Windows allowed users to execute multiple graphical applications at the same time, through cooperative multitasking. Windows implemented an elaborate, segment-based, software virtual memory scheme, which allowed it to run applications larger than available memory: code segments and resources were swapped in and thrown away when memory became scarce, and data segments moved in memory when a given application had relinquished processor control, typically waiting for user input.
Windows OS market share
Hitslink Awio AT OneStat DateMarch 2009March 2009February 2009December 8 2008
Windows 7 (Beta)
Windows 3.0 and 3.1
Main articles: Windows 3.0 and Windows 3.1x
Windows 3.0 (1990) and Windows 3.1 (1992) improved the design, mostly because of virtual memory and loadable virtual device drivers (VxDs) which allowed them to share arbitrary devices between multitasked DOS windows. Also, Windows applications could now run in protected mode (when Windows was running in Standard or 386 Enhanced Mode), which gave them access to several megabytes of memory and removed the obligation to participate in the software virtual memory scheme. They still ran inside the same address space, where the segmented memory provided a degree of protection, and multi-tasked cooperatively. For Windows 3.0, Microsoft also rewrote critical operations from C into assembly, making this release faster and less memory-hungry than its predecessors. With the introduction of the Windows for Workgroups 3.11, Windows was able to bypass DOS for file management operations using 32-bit file access.
Windows 95, 98, and Me
Main articles: Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows Me
Windows 95 was released in 1995, featuring a new user interface, supported long file names, could automatically detect and configure installed hardware (plug and play), natively ran 32-bit applications, and featured several technological improvements that increased its stability over Windows 3.1. Windows 95 uses pre-emptive multitasking and runs each 32-bit application in a separate address space. This makes it harder for a single buggy application to crash the whole system. It was still not a secure multi-user operating system like Windows NT as a strict separation between applications was not enforced by the kernel. The API was a subset of the Win32 API supported by Windows NT, notably lacking support for Unicode and functions related to security. Windows 95 was now bundled together with MS-DOS 7.0, however its role was mostly delegated to that of a boot loader.
There were several releases of Windows 95; the first in 1995, with Service Pack 1 following in December which included Internet Explorer 2.0. Subsequent versions were only available with the purchase of a new computer and were called OEM Service Releases. OSR1 was equivalent to Windows 95 with SP1. OSR2 (also called Windows 95 B) included support for FAT32 and UDMA and shipped with Internet Explorer 3. OSR 2.1 included basic support for USB and OSR 2.5 (also called Windows 95C) shipped with Internet Explorer 4.0.
Microsoft’s next release was Windows 98 in 1998. Microsoft released a second version of Windows 98 in 1999, named Windows 98 Second Edition (often shortened to Windows 98 SE).
In 2000, Microsoft released Windows Me (Me standing for Millennium Edition), which used the same core as Windows 98 but adopted some aspects of Windows 2000 and removed the “boot in DOS mode” option. It also added a new feature called System Restore, allowing the user to set the computer’s settings back to an earlier date. Me is also the last DOS-based Windows release which does not include Microsoft Product Activation.
Main article: Windows NT
The NT family of Windows systems was fashioned and marketed for higher reliability business use, and was unencumbered by any Microsoft DOS patrimony. The first release was MS Windows NT 3.1 (1993, numbered “3.1” to match the consumer Windows version, which was followed by NT 3.5 (1994), NT 3.51 (1995), NT 4.0 (1996), and Windows 2000 (2000). 2000 is the last NT-based Windows release which does not include Microsoft Product Activation. NT 4.0 was the first in this line to implement the “Windows 95” user interface (and the first to include Windows 95’s built-in 32-bit runtimes). Microsoft then moved to combine their consumer and business operating systems with Windows XP, coming in both home and professional versions (and later niche market versions for tablet PCs and media centers); they also diverged release schedules for server operating systems. Windows Server 2003, released a year and a half after Windows XP, brought Windows Server up to date with MS Windows XP. After a lengthy development process, Windows Vista was released toward the end of 2006, and its server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 was released in early 2008. In 2009, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 entered beta. Microsoft plans to release Windows 7 in late 2009 or early 2010.
Windows CE, Microsoft’s offering in the mobile and embedded markets, is also a true 32-bit operating system that offers various services for all sub-operating workstations.
64-bit operating systems
Windows NT included support for several different platforms before the x86-based personal computer became dominant in the professional world. Versions of NT from 3.1 to 4.0 variously supported PowerPC, DEC Alpha and MIPS R4000, some of which were 64-bit processors, although the operating system treated them as 32-bit processors.
With the introduction of the Intel Itanium architecture, which is referred to as IA-64, Microsoft released new versions of Windows to support it. Itanium versions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 were released at the same time as their mainstream x86 (32-bit) counterparts. On April 25, 2005, Microsoft released Windows XP Professional x64 Edition and x64 versions of Windows Server 2003 to support the AMD64/Intel64 (or x64 in Microsoft terminology) architecture. Microsoft dropped support for the Itanium version of Windows XP in 2005. Windows Vista is the first end-user version of Windows that Microsoft has released simultaneously in x86 and x64 editions. Windows Vista does not support the Itanium architecture. The modern 64-bit Windows family comprises AMD64/Intel64 versions of Windows Vista, and Windows Server 2008, in both Itanium and x64 editions. Windows Server 2008 R2 drops the 32-bit version, although Windows 7 does not.